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Development of virgin lands in Kazakhstan.

In 1954, February-March Plenum of the Party Central Committee adopted a resolution "On further increase in grain production in the country and the development of virgin and fallow lands" requires the plowing the Eurasian steppe. This was due to the fact that the USSR was rise the shortage of bread. In 1953, the USSR was harvested 31 million tons of grain, spent 32 million tonnes - this shows that the collective and state farms not handle with its principal function - providing food for society. In order to chose the system of self-preservation is much more than usual, an extensive model of the problem. Mitigate the food crisis is expected due to a sharp increase in grain production. In August 1954, in Kazakhstan, was plowed up 6.5 million hectares. By the beginning of 1955 area of cultivated land increased by 8.5 million hectares, was created 90 new farms. In the autumn of 1954 saw the creation of another 250 farms. Total years in virgin lands (1954-1960 gg.) was plowed up 25.5 million hectares. To provide new land manpower mobilization was carried out volunteers from the western areas of the country, which were given considerable benefits - free travel with the property, cash grants of up to 1 thousand rubles. Loan for the construction of up to 20 thousand rubles for 10 years, until two thousand rub. to purchase livestock, agricultural tax exemption from 2 to 5 years. Total for the development of virgin lands in the years 1954-59 has been allocated over 20 billion rubles. In 1955 had to adopt a special resolution of the CC CPSU : 47 steppe areas and 225 farms require to raise beef cattle. Began work on the expansion of irrigation and fodder. As a result, with great difficulty managed to raise the total number of cattle in the country in 1960 to 37.4 million head (in 1928 - 29.7 million head). However, population growth has led to certain difficulties in the provision of food, forcing the authorities in 1962 for the first time to go price increases for meat by 30% and oil - 25%. Planned increase in production of meat three times did not work. Plowing huge squares of virgin lands has led to a sharp reduction in Kazakhstan hayfields and pasture and start a long crisis of traditional agriculture sector of the republic. In general, the development of virgin lands in Kazakhstan has made a major producer of grain in the world and at the same time laid the cause of long-term crisis of agriculture in the country in subsequent years.

106 Functioning of Baikonur and Semipalatinsk

Cosmodrome "Baikonur" - the first and the world's largest space center, located on the territory of Kazakhstan. For test site was chosen desert in Kazakhstan to the east of the Aral Sea, close to one of the largest rivers of Central Asia, the Syr Darya and the railway from Moscow to Tashkent.

Results for "Baikonur" for 50 years, was launched more than 1,500 satellites for various purposes and more than 100 ballistic missiles, tested 38 major types of missiles, more than 80 types of spacecraft and their modifications.



1991-1993: - crisis after the collapse of the Soviet Union

In 1994, the launch site to the city of Lenin (now Baikonur) leased to Russia.

The official birthdayof spaceport is June 2, 1955

05/08/1965 Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR polygon awarded the Order of Lenin.

12/20/1995 Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Leninsk city was renamed Baikonur city.

Semipalatinsk The first test of nuclear weapons in the Soviet Union was held on 29 August 1949.

Beginning with the first nuclear explosion 08/29/1949, not less than 468 nuclear tests were behavioral in that range. Between 1949 and 1962. had 30 ground tests of the behavioral, 88 nuclear devices were tested in the air, among them the first thermonuclear device (12/08/1953) and the world's first hydrogen bomb (11/22/1955), 6 devices were tested at high altitude and in space. In addition to ground tests at the test site was carried out more than 340 underground tests: in vertical wells and horizontal tunnels.

Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev site was closed August 29, 1991, leaving the contaminated zone at the landfill site and in nearby regions.

107 Economic and socio-political development of KZ in 1965-85

Economic reform in 1965.

The main directions of economic reforms of 1965 ("Kosygin`s reform ") are: the return to sector (ministerial) principle of management, translation companies to self-financing (self-governing, self-sufficiency, self-financing), a combination of state planning with local initiative ("counter plan").

Economy in 1970 - the first half of 1980.

The economic development of the USSR in the 70s - the first half of the 80s was determined three five-year plan - 9th (1971-1975), 10th (1976-1980), 11 - th (1981-1985). It went in a sharp increase in centralized control, a center of social life, limiting the economic power of the republics and local Soviets.

The standard of living of the people.

Since the mid 60's party-state leadership, headed by Leonid Brezhnev took the course mainly to increase the income of the population, which played a positive role in raising the living standards of people.

The main feature of the socio-economic development of the 1970's - the mid-1980s and has been a sharp drop in the overall growth rate. For 15 years the rate of growth of national income and industrial production fell by 2.5 times, agricultural production - by 3.5 times in real incomes - by 3 times. Growth rates have fallen to the level of economic stagnation (stasis), the economy went to pre-crisis frontier. XI Five Year Plan was not implemented on any indicator. In the history of the state five-year plan that was the first case of a general failure of the plan.

108 Education science and cultural life of KZ in 1965-85

The transition to general secondary education began in 70 years. Increased funding for higher and secondary education. In higher education, dominated pedagogical professions. In 80 years, it was announced that the full implementation of mandatory secondary education. 60-70 years, the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic was one of the major research centers in the USSR. Proceedings of the many scientists became known abroad.

Author of a work Blood and sweat Nurpeisov in 60 years was presented to the State Award.

In the artistic literature a special place was occupied by the product of the struggle of the Kazakh people against the invasion of Djungarian

 

109. Kazakhstan during the period of adjustment policies.

The political situation in Kazakhstan in 1985-86g differed by relative stability, as economic situation in the country was somewhat better than in the whole Soviet Union. This was due to the large number of enterprises under the central government with a centralized, ie, better provision of food and consumer goods. The December 1986 event is already in late 1985 - early 1986. in Kazakhstan and Moscow began to sound critical of the government of the republic and in person against the First Secretary of the D. Kunaev, who at that time was about 75 years. Everyone understood the need to change the ruling elite, especially since talking about it and Muscovite rulers. However, it was expected that this will happen in a democratic way, so further developments were considered valid as a violation of the people of the power itself, the declared principles. December 15 in Alma-Ata, a member of the CPSU Central Committee arrived Razumovsky and first secretary of the Ulyanovsk Oblast Party Committee Mr. Kolbin. December 16 at the plenum of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan was announced recommending higher Party organs at post of Kolbin republican first secretary. Party leadership in Kazakhstan without discussion voted "yes" and thus in violation of party rules and statutes, the head of the republic, was elected a person, not only associated with Kazakhstan, and not knowing the local conditions, but even standing on the account of one of the cornfields of local party organizations and not having the Kazakhstan registration. This was seen as an affront to the Kazakh people and caused a spontaneous protest. Morning of 17 December on the square in front of the Central Committee began to meet young people requiring to explain why the election of Mr. Kolbin and ignoring the protests against Moscow's interests of the republic. 17 and 18 December against the peaceful demonstrators were thrown into the police forces and internal forces.

During the tragic events of 17-18 December, several people died, many were wounded and injured. Only in the capital of 264 people were expelled from universities, 758 people - from the Komsomol and 52 men - from the party. At the beginning of 1987 was accepted by the Central Committee, in which the incident was declared a manifestation of "Kazakh nationalism.

 


Date: 2015-01-29; view: 1444


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