Economic and political reforms in Kazakhstan in 1985-1991.
Stagnation in the economy, the slowdown of the economy in a indecisive reforms, 1986-1991 gg led to a section of a single economic system and the Soviet Union in a crisis, out of which there has been until now. Economic Reforms 1986-1989,. In 1985, Kazakhstan's economy was in the pre-crisis state. The economy has established a system of support loss-making enterprises through cost-effective, performance evaluation is not dependent on the quantity and quality of products, and of gross domestic product, i.e. funds expended on its production, which led to the prosperity of the resource-cost technologies. It was planned to reorganize the system of economic management and engineering to develop, through which other industries to modernize and increase production rates. Has been increased import the latest Western technology, but it did not give the expected results.
The struggle to strengthen discipline in the production evolved into anti-alcohol campaign, which led to an increase in drug addiction, home brewing, substance abuse, reduced income to the state treasury. Since the beginning of 1987 started the decline in production. Since 1987, the state began to build a "planned-market" economy… Already in the 1988-1989 year has begun accelerating decline in living standards in Kazakhstan. Economic Reforms 1990-1991 In 1990, for the first time it was stated that part of the authorities to move to a regulated market economy. Blow to the welfare of the people and private monetary reform, implemented in early 1991 and led to the impoverishment of the population. Kazakhstan gained its sovereignty in 1990 led to the emergence of the Republican concept of transition. However, the collapse of the USSR, while maintaining economic ties and Russia's transition unilaterally in early 1992 to the price liberalization led to the destabilization of the financial-monetary system and rampant inflation. Kazakhstan became independent in terms of economic disaster.
111. Collapse of the Soviet Union. Proclamation of Kazakhstan as a sovereign and independent state
By the end of the 80s has become increasingly insistent highlight the problem of national independence. Historical development was adopted on 22 September 1989. "Law on Languages," where the official language was declared the Kazakh and Russian language - the language of interethnic communication.
Soviet republics began to prepare the reform of the Soviet Union in the Union of Sovereign States October 25, 1990 the Supreme Soviet of Kazakhstan adopted a "Declaration of State Sovereignty of Kazakh SSR." Before that, in 24 April 1990 in the republic was established the post of President of the Kazakh SSR, the Supreme Soviet he was elected N. A. Nazarbayev.
August 19 1991. in the country announced the formation of the State Emergency Committee, in fact it was a coup attempt. But the coup failed, the leaders of the Emergency Committee were arrested and handed over to the court. These events precipitated the Soviet collapse, tearing scheduled for August 20 signing of the agreement on its Novoogarevskogo reform. The failure of the coup led to the dissolution of the Communist Party. September 7 an extraordinary convention of the Communist Party of Kazakh-on that has decided to disband. December 1 1991- held nationwide elections for President of Khaz, they became N. A. Nazarbayev, who joined the December 10 post. December 10, it was decided to rename the Kazakh SSR in the ROK. In December 16 1991 was adopted by the Constitutional Law "On the State Independence of the Republic of Kazakhstan", this day was declared a day of independence.
In December 1991 was a complex process of creating the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). First, on December 8 in Minsk, Bulovezh Forest held a meeting of leaders of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine, which signed an agreement on the cancellation of the Treaty in 1922 on the formation of the USSR and the creation of the CIS. Then, in Ashgabat, 13 December, a meeting of leaders of Central Asian Republics and Kazakhstan, which supported the "Belovezh agreement."
112. First steps of independent Kazakhstan
On the way to true sovereignty Kazakhstan has faced several challenges: the economic crisis, social unrest, decline in living standards, unemployment, environmental problems, criminality. To overcome them, and know the proper place in human society, it was necessary to solve problems: economic restructuring, refocusing on its modern high technology industry, creating a socially oriented market by ensuring equality of opportunity, the privatization of property, price liberalization, sound investment policies, the formation of legal state and civil society institutions, the development of culture, education, and science.
December 16, 1991 was adopted by the Constitutional Law "On the State Independence of the Republic of Kazakhstan." It Kazakhstan proclaimed independent, democratic and legal state. From that day Kazakhstan legally exists as a sovereign state.
President Nursultan Nazarbayev in his book, "Strategy formation and development of Kazakhstan" as an independent state" defined strategic goals and directions of formation of our independent state in the context of a new historical situation. The fundamental principles expressed in the book, then went into the Basic Law (Constitution), adopted on 27 January 1993. In these and other works by the country's leader has paid great attention to the implementation of social solidarity and harmony, which are the dominant political value for the young independent state.
On November 12, 1993, Kazakhstan has introduced its own currency - tenge. August 30, 1995 was adopted a new Constitution of independent Kazakhstan.
March 2, 1992 Kazakhstan was adopted to the UN. In 1992 the system was developed the national security. June 4, 1992 will forever remain in history and in memory of the people as the birthday of the state symbols of Kazakhstan.
113. Foreign policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan
After gaining the sovereignty of the Republic was faced with the need to develop and conduct its own foreign policy.
Concept of Foreign Policy of Kazakhstan has been identified by the President of the republicN. A. Nazarbayev, in his paper "Strategy formation and development of Kazakhstan as a sovereign state," which appeared in print in May 1992. "The main goal of foreign policy - is said in it - the formation of a favorable external environment and support sustainable development based on political and economic reforms." By creating a national security system, i.e. foreign policy, Kazakhstan had to start from the characteristics of its geopolitical and economic situation. Kazakhstan is located in the heart of Euro-Asian continent and at the crossroads of Europe and Asia, crossed transport and communication lines between East and West.
The main part of the country's exports of raw materials (metals, oil, grain, wool). Taking into account its position, Kazakhstan in the international arena is pursuing a multi-policy. Its essence is to establish and develop mutually beneficial cooperation with all countries and abroad. The strategic objectives of foreign policy are this book of principles in the indestructibility of, the principles of independence, territorial integrity and inviolability of borders.
Kazakhstan at the moment has become a major player in international politics, which was caused by its good geographical position on the border of two continents, Europe and Asia, among the key players in international relations, the Russian Federation and China. The presence of large areas (9th largest in the world), huge reserves of minerals and other natural resources enables the country to raise its international political rating. On March 2, 1992 The Republic of Kazakhstan was adopted by the UN.Today in Kazakhstan there are 15 UN agencies.
In January 1992 the Republic of Kazakhstan joined the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. This organization is primarily seen in Kazakhstan a partner in solving the Afghan issue.
Kazakhstan and the SCO.
Kazakhstan pays special attention to relations with neighboring states. Kazakhstan - one of five countries, who have launched the emergence of this organization.
Kazakhstan's foreign policy is primarily aimed at Russia, China, U.S., EU and Arab countries. These countries, with which official government of Kazakhstan has identified as strategic.
Diplomatic relations between the Republic of Kazakhstan with the European Union was established on February 2, 1993. The relationship between the two entities are carried in many papers, the main ones are the "Path to Europe".
114. Economic development of the sovereign Kazakhstan
Assessing the outcomes of market reform in Kazakhstan's economy since independence, it is necessary first of all, note the gradual and phased transition to the formation of the Kazakh model of sustainable socio-economic development.
The first stage of market reforms can be roughly defined from 1992 to 1997. During this period there was a process of transition of Kazakhstan's society from the junction of the administrative-command system to market relations based on private ownership and competition.
The second phase of development of Kazakhstan's economy began in 1998 after the adoption of the Strategy "Kazakhstan-2030". With the adoption of this document began the creative process to achieve long-term goals and priorities, to build a steadily growing economy.
The above stages in the development of Kazakhstan as an independent state took place at different socio-economic trends.
In the first stage of socio-economic transformation of the economy was in a stage production of deep financial crisis that negatively affected all aspects of development and required for rapid and sometimes unpopular decisions in public.
In the second stage there is a trend of high rates of economic development and the process of transformation of social relations requires a deep study of the socio-economic policy of the Government to adopt the most effective solutions that will be well received in society.
The Republic of Kazakhstan is rich in mineral resources, vast arable land, skilled labor, a significant industrial potential. Today, Kazakhstan has a functioning market economy.
Kazakhstan exports raw materials produced by mining, fuel, steel and chemical industries.
By reserves of iron ore Kazakhstan occupies the eighth place in the world. The share of non-ferrous metals in the total industrial output exceeds 12%.Kazakhstan is a major producer of gold.
Agriculture is an important sector of the economy.Kazakhstan by grain production ranks third in the CIS.
Natural conditions in Kazakhstan, their diversity present a significant potential for livestock development. In Kazakhstan, traditionally engaged sheep farming, horse breeding, camel breeding, breeding cattle.
115. Political development in the period of its sovereignty
Kazakhstan gained independence the state initiated a number of processes that continue to evolve and are still far from complete. They affect different aspects of the state and nation.
Political processes. Immediately after the announcement of December 16 1991 the state independence of Kazakhstan, began the process of forming a new political system, characterized by strong presidential authority, and based on the principles of democracy and respect for fundamental rights and freedoms.1992 was a year of active entry Kazakh in the international arena. March 3 republic became a member of the United Nations, and later joined other international organizations. At the same time developed and national symbols. June 4, 1992 was approved by the State Emblem and Flag of Kazakhstan, December 11 - its National Anthem.
Measures were taken to separate the functions of the legislative and executive power, started work on parliamentary reform and the transformation of local government. In January of 1993 Constitution was adopted in Kazakhstan. Continued reform of the political system, led to the adoption of the second Constitution in August 30, 1995 in which the supreme legislative power was transferred to a bicameral parliament consisting of the Senate (and two deputies from each region) and the Majilis (67 deputies). April 29, 1995 in the republic referendum was held, extend the term of President Nursultan Nazarbayev before December 1, 2000. In the 1997 important event took place in the life of Kazakhstan - moving the capital to Astana, which was dictated by a number of economic and political reasons that are of strategic importance.
The deterioration of macroeconomic indicators and the threat of a new round of crisis led to the fact that the President took an unprecedented step - has announced the immediate resignation from office and a new election. Past January 10, 1999 elections showed that the majority of the people of Kazakhstan support the current policy of the president and the policy of reform. For the first time in the history of Kazakhstan presidential elections were held on an alternative basis. Political reforms are incomplete and require further improvement of the structure of government, executive power, legislative reform, administrative and political division of the state.
116. Parties and public organizations of Kazakhstan
The Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan guarantees the rights of parties, movements, associations, except those whose activities are aimed at "changing the constitutional order, violation of the integrity of the republic, undermining national security, inciting social, racial, ethnic, religious, class and tribal enmity." State intervention in the affairs of political parties and public associations are not allowed. According to the latest edition of the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan "On political parties" political party must have at least 50 000 members.
Public organization - nonprofit / non-governmental voluntary association of citizens based on common interests and goals. Sometimes used in the definition of "third sector" (the public) in addition to public and private sectors.
Kazakhstan officially registered nine political parties:
§ The Democratic Party "Adilet"
§ Democratic Party of Kazakhstan "Ak Jol"
§ Kazakhstan Social and Democratic Party "Aul"
§ Communist People's Party of Kazakhstan
§ Communist Party of Kazakhstan (the activity is suspended)
§ People's Democratic Party "Nur Otan"
§ National Social-Democratic Party "Azat"
§ Party of Patriots of Kazakhstan
§ Party "Rukhaniyat"
117. Social policy in the Republic of Kazakhstan
The program’s objective: To improve the health of Kazakhstan’s people and to provide sustainable social-demographic development for the country.
The program’s tasks:
To strengthen intersectoral and interdepartmental coordination on population health protection issues and maintain sanitation and epidemiological well-being
To develop and advance the common national healthcare system
To advance medical and pharmaceutical education
To develop the medical sciences and pharmaceutical activities..
Else Kazakhstan has such programs as:
§ Kazakhstan’s state education development program for 2011-2020
§ The housing and public utilities sector modernization program, till 2020
§ 2020 Employment program
§ The housing construction program
§ The functioning and development of languages state program for 2011-2020