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February revolt

In February 1917, Russia was accomplished the bourgeois-democratic revolution, the fall of the monarchy. Kazakhs welcomed the overthrow of the autocracy, seeing it as meeting the objectives of the national liberation movement in 1916. The leaders of national liberation movements believed that with the establishment of democracy, freedom and equality, it is time to create national autonomy.
In March and April 1917 were created everywhere the Soviets of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies. In some cities (Uralsk, Faithful, Akmola, Semipalatinsk, Aulie-Ata) appeared Kyrgyz (Kazakh) national committees. Along with the bodies of the Council to act of the Provisional Government. In Kazakhstan, as well as throughout the country that has a dual power. The new government has taken steps to revise the imperial national policies. March 20, 1917 were canceled restrictions on the rights of Russian citizens by religion or nationality. This decision was aimed at establishing national consensus. The Provisional Government has decided to return home requisitioned workers tylovikov. The February Revolution of 1917, stated its commitment to universal values ​​- freedom, equality. But it is not decided until the end of the national question of the right of nations to self-determination, not liquidated the institutions of colonial rule.A huge impact on the growth of political consciousness tylovikov provided their contact with the Russian workers, soldiers.
In July 1917, Vernyi former "confiscated the workers' union laborers have created, designed to raise the class consciousness of the poor. In Sergiopole (Ayaguz) 800 men and Kazakhs tylovikov united in the "Russian-Muslim soldier organization," organized by the Union in Petropavlovsk young carriers. Tyloviki have the support of opposition to the Provisional Government.

 

84.First all kazakhstan Congress was in July 28, 1917 in Orenburg. It was attended by 6 regions – Akmola, Semipalatinsk, Turgai, Ural, Semirechye, Fergana and also Bukeyev Horde. The Chairman of the Congress was Dosmukhamedov H. At the Congress of the 14 issues were discussed. There are: form of Government; autonomy in Kazakh fields; the land issue; people's militia; zemstvo; education; Court of Justice; religion; women's issue; preparation of the constituent Assembly of deputies of the Kazakh areas; All-Russian Muslim Congress "Shchura-e-Islami"; Kazakh political party; on the situation in the Semirečenekoi area; the premise of the Kazakhs in the federalist Congress throughout Russia as well as in the Commission. On all issues have been taken the constructive resolution of the national democratic content. Particular attention was drawn to the following problem: on the form of Government, the autonomy of the Kazakh areas, the agrarian question, the proceedings, the question of women's rights, on the preparations for the elections to the constituent Assembly, a Kazakh political party. The first Vsekazahskij the Congress announced the creation of the Kazakh political party "alash", was founded draft programe, consisting of 10 sections. "This was not a nationalist and patriotic organization, which sought the gradual transformation of Kazakh society and adapt it to present-day realities".



 

85. Formation of the party “Alash”

Alash (1917-1920) was a constitutional democratic party in the Alash Autonomy.

Chairman - Alikhan Bokeikhanov.

Alash Orda is the autonomous Kazakh government established by the liberal-nationalist Alash party in December 1917. Alash was the mythical ancestor of the Kazakhs, and Alash Orda (Horde of Alash) long served as their traditional battle cry. His name was adopted by the Kazakh nationalist journal, Alash, that was published by secularist Kazakh intellectuals for twenty-two issues, from November 26, 1916, to May 25, 1917. Alash Orda then was taken as the name of a political party founded in March 1917 by a group of moderate, upper-class Kazakh nationalists. Among others, they included Ali Khan Bukeykhanov, Ahmed Baytursun, Mir Yakub Dulatov, Oldes Omerov, Magzhan Zhumabayev, H. Dosmohammedov, Mohammedzhan Tynyshbayev, and Abdul Hamid Zhuzhdybayev. Initially, the party's program resembled that of the Russian Constitutional-Democrats (Kadets), but with a strong admixture of Russian Menshevik (Social Democrat) and Socialist-Revolutionary (SR) ideas. Despite later Soviet charges, it was relatively progressive on social issues and demanded the creation of an autonomous Kazakh region. This program was propagated in the newspaper Qazaq (Kazakh ), published in Orenburg. The paper had a circulation of about eight thousand until it was closed by the Communists in March 1918.

 

86. Education and activities of the Alash Horde

After March 1917, Alash Orda's leaders dominated Kazakh politics. They convened a Second All-Kirgiz (Kazakh) Congress in Orenburg from December 18 through December 26, 1917. On December 23, this congress proclaimed the autonomy of the Kazakh steppes under two Alash Orda governments. One, centered at the village of Zhambeitu and encompassing the western region, was headed by Dosmohammedov. The second, headed by Ali Khan Bukeykhanov, governed the eastern region from Semipalatinsk. Both began as strongly anti-Communist and supported the anti-Soviet forces that were rallying around the Russian Constituent Assembly (Komuch): the Orenburg Cossacks and the Bashkirs of Zeki Velidi Togan. In time, however, the harsh minority policies of Siberia's White Russian leader, Admiral Alexander Vasilievich Kolchak, alienated the Kazakh leaders. Alash Orda's leaders then sought to achieve their goals by an alignment with Moscow. Accepting Mikhail Vasilievich Frunze's November 1919 promise of amnesty, most Kazakh leaders recognized Soviet power on December 10, 1919. After further negotiations, the Kirgiz Revolutionary Committee (Revkom) formally abolished Alash Orda's institutional network in March 1920. Many Alash leaders then joined the Communist Party and worked for Soviet Kazakhstan, only to perish during Stalin's purges of the 1930s. After 1990 the name "Alash" reappeared, but as the title of a small Kazakh pan-Turkic and Pan-Islamic party and its journal.

 

87. Establishment of the Soviet power in Kazakhstan

November 1917 - March 1918 is the period of the establishment of Soviet power in Kazakhstan.

Between the end of October 1917 to March 1918, the Soviet power was established mainly in the cities and other settlements of Kazakhstan.

The process of establishing authority of Councils in Kazakhstan was delayed for several reasons. In large parts of the province, especially in areas adjacent to railways and the major business centres where counterrevolution was unable to organize armed resistance to the revolution, Soviet power was established peacefully, i.e. without armed path. Where counter-revolution had a real opportunity for armed resistance (primarily in the areas of the Cossack armies), the Soviets won as a result of the defeat of a counterrevolutionary forces. The first took power on October 30, 1917, workers and soldiers of Perovsk (Kzyl-Orda). After winning an armed uprising in Tashkent, October 28, 1917, Bolsheviks led (the administrative center of Turkestan) Soviet power peacefully in Aulie-ATA (Džanbul), Černâevo (Chimkent), Kazalinsk, November 22, 1917, the transition of power to the Soviets experienced in Petropavlovsk, 27 December in Akmolinsk. In Uralsk, Orenburg, Vernyi with the Mensheviks and Socialist “military Government” have been established committed to training and deploying against the Soviets.

After the Ataman a. and 14 November, Dutov in Orenburg committed a coup and began open hostilities against the Volga and the Ural Krasnogvardejskiy units, the leaders of the Kazakh intelligentsia 5 – 13 December 1917, convened in Orenburg third Congress of the party "Alash", which had developed software installation; announced the establishment of autonomy Alash-Orda and the establishment of the Government headed by A.Bukejhanov. This Congress has scheduled a national armed force in the form of a militia of 25 thousand people. December 25, 1917, Soviet power was established in Kostanay. In Semirechye the struggle continued until the spring of 1918, the Soviet power was established March 3, 1918, in the right. The struggle for the establishment of power Tips on a vast territory of Kazakhstan lasted several months, among the Kazakhs were such prominent champions of power Boards, a. Džangil′din, a. Imanov, s. Seifullin and others.

 

88. Kazakhstan during the Civil War(1918-1920)

Reason: mutiny Chehoslavackiy Shell on May 25, 1918. During the Civil War, formed confrontation between the White and the Red Army, whose actions caused a blow to the population. Initially the formation of the Red Army happened voluntarily. In 1920 the Turkestan was proclaimed the first forcible recruitment into the army. Military units formed in Kazakhstan-Muslim. Formation of the Red Army was engaged in emergency of the kommisar of the Steppe region - Zhangildin.

On the territory of Kazakhstan was formed 4 fronts: Ural front(against kolchaks), Aktobe front, Semirechenskiy front(against Annenkov), Turkestan front(Middle Asian counterrevolution). 25th Chapaevskiy Division fought on the Ural front. 5th army under the command of Tukhachevskiy relieved the Northern and Eastern Kazakhstan. On the Semirechenskiy front, the major role in the struggle for Soviet power played Cherkasskiy Defense (June 1918-October 1919). In 1918 Zhangildin organized a military expedition to deliver weapons to Aktobe front. the Ural front was eliminated firstly (1919). The last was eliminated Semirechenskiy Front (March 1920). In June 1920 in the Vernyi began antisoviet rebellion, which was soon suppressed.

 

89. Policy of “war communism” during the Civil War in Kazakhstan

In 1919, Lenin declared the policy of "war communism". The main focus of "war communism" was prodrazvertska (a tax on farmers). Prodrazverstka - revocation of peasants all surplus of agricultural products.

Social policy of "war communism" was based on the principle of "no work, no eat". In 1918 he was introduced to service for former exploitative classes, and in 1920, the universal service. Forced mobilization of labor carried out by labor armies, aimed at restoring transport construction works, etc.

Prerequisites for "war communism" were the nationalization of industry, the establishment of a central State apparatus, the introduction of food dictatorship, experiences of military-political pressure on the village.

The civil war ended with the victory of the Bolsheviks. Victims of the Red Army numbered 8 million. At the beginning of the Civil War, the Liberal Democratic intelligence was on the side of the White Army (opposed Soviet rule), at the end of the war, the Liberal-Democratic intelligence was transferred to the side of the Soviet authorities.

 

90. Nation-building in Kazakhstan(1920-30s)

The first railway construction in the Soviet period was built in 1920-1922, in the area of Petropavlovsk-Kokchetav. Then in 1926-1931, the line was continued through the station Resort “Borovoye” and Astana to Karaganda, its total length exceeded 700 km. In 1924, the railway line was established Kulunda-Pavlodar. For the development of the oil fields of Mezhdurechye in 1926, was built in narrow gauge road Guryev – Dossor (part of project Algemba, the road was supposed to go to Dallas via Aleksandrovo-Gai metallurgical region).

A landmark event was the completion in 1930, the construction of the great Turkestan-Siberian railway of 1444 km. It linked up with Siberia and Kazakhstan had contributed to economic development and the development of many desert lands.

In the 1930s were also built lines: from Karaganda to Balkhash(490 km), Shymkent-Lenger town, Elbow-protection (235 km). In 1935, was put into operation the bridge crossing the Volga below. In 1936, work began on laying the railway line from Uralsk to Ilecka. The work was completed in 1939. Kazakhstan became associated with the shortest path through Central Russia-Saratov – Uralsk Tambov.

 

91. NEP in Kazakhstan

NEP adopted in the spring of 1921. Basic direction of NEP was the replacement of prodrazverstka to prodnalog ("big bang" tax). NEP in Kazakhstan began late because in 1921 famine began in Kazakhstan. Hunger and jute were caused by the dry climate and the removal of 80% of rural economic production. In Western Kazakhstan from hunger suffered 82% of the population.

In June 1921, Lenin signed a decree "On the natural meat tax", which released the peasants-nomads from meat tax.

June 1921- land-water reform had started. Objective of the reform: the return of land seized from the Kazakhs by tsarizm. In the land and water reform has been of great assistance to the Union "Kosči" ("Union of the poor"). In 1922 Zhangildin organized awareness expedition-"Red caravan". The expedition has gone from Orenburg to Semipalatinsk and leave a “Red yurts”, which became the Centre of education in the villages. In 1921 there was first Congress of young Communists of Kazakhstan in Orenburg. Leader is Gani Muratbayev. In 1922 NEP began.

The results of NEP: 1) the number of cattle to the 1928 reached 40.5 million heads. 2) Rudny Altai-the main center of non-ferrous metals industry of Kazakhstan. 3)3/4 population of AUL to 1928 became middle peasants. 4) in 1921 created massive public organization of trade unions (all working population). 5) in 1921 adopted Decree "on the Exchange, which increased sales and opened 200 fairs. 6) in 1924 prodnalog steel charge money. In 1925, Stalin came to power in the country, abolished the NEP and returned to a policy of war communism.

 

92. Socialist industrialization of Kazakhstan

The mobilization of resources by state planning expanded the country's industrial base.

Course on industrialization was taken in 1925 at the XIV Congress of the Communist Party. Industrialization in Kazakhstan coincided in the first five-year plan (1928-1932). Industrialization in Kazakhstan was held by Goloshchekin (1925-1933).

Industrialization in Kazakhstan began with the study of natural resources. Academician Gubkin proved that the richest oil reserves are concentrated in the Urals and Emba. Academician Kurnakov proved that Central Kazakhstan is a metallogenic zone. In the expedition of academician Kurnakov worked K.Satpayev.

In 1942 Satpayev opened the richest Zhezkazgan deposit and was awarded the USSR State Prize. Goloshchekin put forward the idea of "Small October"- priority developed only industry of the raw materials.

Sadvakasov and Mynbayev were against the idea of "Small October". Sadvakasov wrote: "Kazakhstan was and remained a colony". Stalin called Goloschekin’s policy only correct policy.

From 1928 to 1932, peak iron output, necessary for further development of the industrial infrastructure rose from 3.3 million to 6.2 million tons per year. In real terms, the workers' standards of living tended to drop, rather than rise during the industrialization.

Based on these figures the Soviet government declared that Five Year Industrial Production Plan had been fulfilled by 93.7% in only four years, while parts devoted to heavy−industry part were fulfilled by 108%. Stalin in December 1932 declared the plan a success to the Central Committee, since increases in the output of coal and iron would fuel future development.

During the second five−year plan (1933–37), on the basis of the huge investment during the first plan, industry expanded extremely rapidly, and nearly reached the plan.

 

93. Stalinist collectivization in Kazakhstan

1928 witnessed the turning of the Soviet economic policies towards collectivization. This year also marked the end of the NEP, which had allowed peasants to sell their surpluses on the open market. Food demand intensified, especially in main grain producing regions, with new, forced approaches implemented. Upon joining kolkhozes (collective farms), peasants had to give up their private plots of land and property, and the kolkhoz produce was sold to the state for a low price set by the state itself. However, the natural progress of collectivization was slow, and the November 1929 Plenum of the Central Committee decided to implement accelerated, forced collectivization.Given the goals of the first Five Year Plan, the state sought increased political control of agriculture, hoping to feed the rapidly growing urban areas and to export grain, a source of foreign currency needed to import technologies necessary for heavy−industrialization.By 1936 about 90% of Soviet agriculture was collectivized. . Kulaks, prosperous peasants, were forcibly resettled to Kazakhstan, Siberia and the Russian Far North (a large portion of the kulaks served at forced labor camps). However, just about anyone opposing collectivization was deemed a "kulak". The policy of liquidation of kulaks as a class, formulated by Stalin at the end of 1929, meant some executions, and much greater deportation to special settlements and sometimes to forced labor camps.Despite the expectations, collectivization led to a catastrophic drop in farming productivity.

The number of people who died in the famines is estimated at 2 mln .Collectivization began with the forced buildup of Kazakhs. 1930-1932-"Years of jute". Collectivization was enforced forcefully. In 1932 Ryskulov wrote a letter to Stalin personally in which gave data from the report of the International organization “Red Cross”, working in Kazakhstan in 1932. In 1932-1931 there were massive uprisings against the collectivization in Kazakhstan. In 1928 was accepted a Decree of confiscation and displacement of households of bays.

 

94. The development of education in the 1920-30s

In the field of culture by the Soviet authorities was defined strategic objective: departure from the traditional way of life, atheism, education of the new elite, necessary for the new State and party apparatus. A central place in this process focused on education.

December 26, 1919, was signed by the Decree on the Elimination of illiteracy. In 1920-1921 in Kazakhstan worked 2412 posts on elimination of illiteracy, where 72232 students had been studied. Has been declared a massive hike to the AUL. "red yurts" Were created to work with women. Was Formed educational system, including primary, lower secondary, secondary. Opened a school for over-age boarding schools.

August 26, 1930, was accepted a resolution on establishing universal compulsory primary education. This was of great importance. were Created textbooks in Kazakh. The authors:Baitursynov, Aimautov, Seifullin. Originator first textbook of algebra in the Kazakh language was K.Satpayev, an important fact should be mentioned here as the translation of the Kazakh alphabet in 1928, with Arab Latin charts

The first Kazakhstani high school became the Kazakh State Pedagogical Institute, opened in 1928, which, in 1935, was named after Abai.

1929-zooveterinary Institute,1930-agricultural Institute,1931-Medical Institute,1934-Kazakh University-Kazgu,1935- was published "the history of Kazakhstan since ancient times" (Asfendiyarov) 20-30 years-the period of formation of science in Kazakhstan. A major centre for the study of history, ethnography, economy edge and Sciences became the “Society for study of Kazakhstan” (1920).

In 1926, the archaeologist Mason performed excavations at the site Taraz. Important work in the area of health was made by Sanitary and bacteriological Institute. Were Explored mineral deposits. So were made conditions for the creation of the Kazakhstan base of the USSR Academy of Sciences.

 

95. Science and culture of Kazakhstan of the 1920-30s

1935- was published "the history of Kazakhstan since ancient times" (Asfendiyarov) 20-30 years-the period of formation of science in Kazakhstan. A major centre for the study of history, ethnography, economy edge and Sciences became the “Society for study of Kazakhstan” (1920).

In 1926, the archaeologist Mason performed excavations at the site Taraz. Important work in the area of health was made by Sanitary and bacteriological Institute. Were Explored mineral deposits. So were made conditions for the creation of the Kazakhstan base of the USSR Academy of Sciences.“Primer and textbook on Kazakh language” was created by A.Baitursynov.

Music: Zataevich - composer-ethnographer, released 2 compilations: "1000 Kazakh songs" and "500 songs and kyuis”. He was awarded the title national artist of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Amre Kashaubayev – a singer, performed Kazakh songs in France and Germany.

Kulyash Baiseitova – national artist of USSR. In 1936 opened first decade of Kazakh art in Moscow.

Mayra Shamsutdinova – “Kazakh nightingale” .

Theatre: 1926-opened first national Kazakh theatre in Kzyl-Orda. Director- Zhumat Shanin.

1933-Uighur musical theatre in Alma-Ata.

1934-theatre of opera and ballet in Alma-Ata.

1936- State Philharmonic in Alma-Ata.

1937-Korean theatre in Kzyl-Orda.

1934- Kazakh State Orchestra named after Kurmangazy, under the guidance of Zhubanov.

1934- Studio of Documentary Films in Alma-Ata.

1938- shot the first feature film “Amangeldy” on Lenfilm.Literature: Isa Bayzakov-“Kuralay Sulu”; S.Seifullin-“ Thorny path, a difficult transition”. Collections of poetry: "La Marseillaise of young Kazakh people"; I.Zhansugurov-“Kulager”; Zh.Aimauytov-“Old Kozha”; M.Zhumabayev-collection of poetry “Sholpan”, also he translated works of Gete and Geine; A.Baitursynov-collection of poetry “Masa”; Dulatov-“Unhappy Zhamal”, “Kazakh, wake up”.

 

96. Political repressions of the 1920-30s

Soviet repression of the traditional elite, along with forced collectivization in late 1920s-1930s, brought mass hunger and led to unrest. Soviet rule, however, took hold, and a communist apparatus steadily worked to fully integrate Kazakhstan into the Soviet system. Kazakhstan experienced population inflows of thousands exiled from other parts of the Soviet Union during the 1930s and later became home for hundreds of thousands evacuated from the Second World War Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic World War II effort. Political repression continued after the end of the civil war. They have become endemic, with the beginning of the forced collectivization of agriculture and rapid industrialization in the late 1920 's early 1930-ies as well as strengthening the personal power of Stalin. Mass political repression is one of the most tragic pages in the history of Kazakhstan. On the territory of Kazakhstan were the largest camp structure GULAG – ALZHIR, STEPLAG, KARLAG. The Republic almost turned into one big prison. During the years of repression in Kazakhstan it was exiled camp more than 5 million people.

From 1921 to 1954 in Kazakhstan, 100000 people were convicted, 25000 of which were applied to the shooting. In the period from 1937 to 1938, as a result of the policy of Small October began massive repression in Kazakhstan. All "wrong" under various pretexts were removed from the Republic. Many were removed from their posts.In 1928, were repressed former leaders of Alash Orda-Dulatuli, Zhumabayev, Aimauytov. The situation in the Republic of emergency – everywhere looking for enemies. For 33 years from 1920 to 1953, about 110 thousand people has been subjected to political repression, about 18% of all Kazakhstan party organization was declared as enemies of the people. A favorite object of Stalin's repressions were local party figures – the so-called national-evaders have. On Stalin's system they were subjected to moral and physical destruction.

 

97) Political and social life in KZ in 1920-1930-ies. The most significant event-the decree about the formation of Kazakh autonomous soviet socialistic republic (26.08.1920). Later the meeting of soviets of KazASSR was held, where the controllers were elected and the declaration of the rights of workers was accepted. 1920-1924-the capital was Orenburg, 1920-1922 the borders of KazASSR were discussed; as a result-adjoining of Semipalatinsk and Akmola regions. 1921-decree about the order of use of K. and R. languages. 1922-formation of USSR. 1924-death of Lenin. 1925-29 the capital Kyzyl-Orda. 1922-1953-Stalin’s governing., was accompanied by numerous repressions, the strengthening of totalitarian system. 1937-38-mass repressions, creation of GULAG. Liquidation of illiteracy, education.

98) Stalinist policy of forced resettlement in KZ of Peoples from the Caucasus, the Volga region, Far East and other regions of the USSR. During almost 50 years KZ was being settled by political convicts, Motherland betrayers, other nations and so on (Dungans in 1916, Germans in 1941, Koreans in 1937, etc). Stalin tried to depart all the people, which he thought to be betrayers and dangerous for the USSR in one place in order to have proper control over them. Koreans and Germans were not allowed to take part in the war. In spite of the prohibition many Germans took part and 9 of them got the name of the Hero of the USSR. Thus the policy of fighting of Stalin against people in fact turned KZ in the country of camps, prisons, GULAGs. Kazakh people helped the deported a lot. They had to combine the care of new-settled and the hardships after the World War 2.

99=101) Heroism of KZ in the Great Patriotic War. Kazakhs took active part in the War, among them 500 Heroes of the USSR, 410 thousand Kazakhstani warriors were killed. 2 Kazakh girls were named the Heroes of the USSR (M. Mametova was machine gunner and A. Moldagulova was sniper). Kozhedub- pilot, H. of the USSR 3 times. Luganskiy, he knocked down 37 planes. A lot of people closed the embrasure with their chest. Some warriors approached their planes into the enemy tanks, made ram attacks. Thousands of Kazakhstani gave their lives in the battles. They showed great patriotism in the fields of battle.

 

100=101. Kz-as arsenal for front duringWWII. During the WWII KZ was the front’s arsenal. About 1.2mln Kazakhs took direct part in military action against Germany. On the eve of and during the War, 102.00Poles from the western regions of the USSR, about 360.000 Germans from Volga regions, 100.000 Koreans from the Far East, Chechens, Ingush, Karachays, Balkaretses from Caucasus, Crimean Tatars, Meskhetian Turks were all deported to KZ.

 

102. The development of science and culture of Kz in WWII

Science. 1946, June- The creation of Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR. The president of academy was K.I.Satpaev. The group of scientists established laws of minerals in nature, made metallogenic and prediction maps.

In 1970 the group of scientists with header Aythozhin reached the greatest results in genetics and microbiology. 1958- was established institute of Philosophy and Law. 1961-Institute of Linguistics, Literature and Art. A.H.Margulanov investigated nations history and culture, who lived in Kz in Bronze Age.

Literature. The greatest work in Kz literature was the M.Auezovs The way of Abay. In 1949 Auezov was given State premium of the USSR. S.Mukanov tried to give a mark to historical way of nation in his trilogy school of life. The national prose of Kz was awakened region by G.Musrepov. G.Mustafin-Shanyrak, Millionaire, his historical works were Karaganda, after the storm. During 1960-1980 appeared new famous name. A.Nurpeisov Blood and sweat, due to this he got the State premium. A.Alimzhanov and his work return of the teacher were given the International premium by named Dzh.Neru. Return of teacher was devote to Al-Farabi.

O.Suleymenovs land, bow man was about the 1st astronaut U.Gagarin. I.Esenberlin wrote the truth about Kenesary Kasymov in his work Nomads.

 

103. Kazakhstan in the post-war period (1946-1953)

In the performance of the overall objectives for the country and further recovery of the national economy Kazakhstan takes a special place. Due to the fact that in Kazakhstan evacuees housed factories, construction of new and expanded existing businesses, industry of Kazakhstan during the war years greatly exceeded the prewar level. But the effects of the war were difficult for the economy of Kazakhstan. Decreased production of many industrial products, especially consumer goods. Greatly exacerbated the problem of labor resources. At factories and in agriculture, an acute shortage of manpower. This was due to several reasons. Most of the specialists who were evacuated to Kazakhstan during the war, they returned to their homes. Conducted preparation and retraining of workers, to make transfers manpower. Forced measure - labor mobilization of citizens to work in industry and construction, used in the war years, was replaced by an organized set. Due to the large part of the demobilization of the Armed Forces of the USSR for 1945 came in Kazakhstan retired 104 thousand officers and soldiers, and in January 1, 1947 - 188.2 thousand people. The industry has been restored 8 - hour working day, eliminated the massive overtime and weekend work. Workers and employees were provided paid leave. The working people of of Kazakhstan, having overcome all difficulties and in 1946 basically completed transition of the economy to peaceful. Program of post-war development has been defined by the "Law on the five-year plan the reconstruction and development of the economy of the USSR for 1946-1950", approved in March 1946, the first session of the Supreme Soviet. The Soviet people were given the task: "... to restore the affected areas of the country, to restore pre-war levels of industry and agriculture, and then go beyond this level to a considerable extent” The main objectives of the fourth “Five Year Plan”.

1. Development of heavy industry in the republic.

2. Construction of new railway lines.

3. Increase crop yields.

4. Raising the cultural level of material welfare.

As a result of a five-year plan, the country had launched production of rolled steel, cement, synthetic fibers, superphosphate, equipment for ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, mining and coal mining, production of press-forging and machining equipment, agricultural machines.The great development of iron and steel industry was - in a metallurgical plant in Temirtau were put in place three rolling mills, and two open-hearth furnaces at the Aktobe plant of ferroalloys - the third stage of the enterprise.

 

104.Scienttific and cultural life of the republic during the second half 1940-1950-ies

In the war years in the Kazakh SSR, as well as across the country, has been temporarily suspended the implementation of compulsory education in the village of seven years and ten years in the city, significantly reduced the coverage of children by the school. Despite serious financial difficulties the state allocated large allocations for schooling. If in 1946 for this purpose were released 85.6 million rubles, in 1950 - 146.5 million rubles. In addition, Kazakhstan and across the country, organized Sundays schools, establishment of a fund universal education, as well as funds to help orphans and needy children. In sparsely populated areas, a network of residential care facilities, in 1953 they had learned about 40 thousand children.Overall, by 1950 the country functioned from 3088 schools enroll students in 1 million 439 thousand. During this period, a measure of success achieved in the development and literature. In 1947 finished the second book of the novel - an epic of "Abai" M. Auezov, and in 1949 he was awarded the USSR State Prize. While there are such vivid works of Kazakh literature as "Syrdarya" S. Mukanov, "Millionaire" Mustafin and I. Shukhov novels, works of T. Zharokov and other writers. However, in the postwar years, has a new round of repressive policy toward intellectuals. In Leningrad and Moscow were fabricated so-called “Leningrad case” “Doctors case”, in Kazakhstan there was “Bekmakhanov case”. E. Bekmakhanov was a gifted historian.In the war years in a team of scientists, which included well-known historians A.P. Kuchkin, Pankratova, B.D. Greeks, Druzhinin, and others worked on the "History of the Kazakh SSR," which was published in 1943. In 1947, E. Bekmakhanov prepared a monograph "Kazakhstan in the 20-40s of XIX century." The views of the scientist were declared nationalist and politically harmful. December 4th, 1952 E. Bekmakhanov was sentenced to 25 years and only after the death of Stalin, in the spring of 1954, he returned to Kazakhstan. Political scientists have been accused Zhubanov, H. Jumaliev, B. Suleimenov, writer J. D. Dombrowski and other outstanding scientists and K. Satpayev, Auezov because of persecution, were forced to leave Kazakhstan to Moscow.

 


Date: 2015-01-29; view: 1348


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