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History_exam

1. What is the view on the appearance of mankind on the Earth? The Bible. Being. 1, 26. "So God created man in his image…". So nowadays, some people believe that God created us. But other think that we appeared from apes. Charles Darwin and many anthropologists after him built a fairly coherent theory of human origins, and Friedrich Engels scientifically proved that only the work turned ape into a man. But in this chain (monkey - Australopithecus - Pithecanthropus - Homo erectus - Neanderthal - Cromanyon), there is a significant gap: Neanderthal man did not like the structure of the skull and other bones in the Cromanyon man, who, in fact, a contemporary man.

 

2. What historical period a man appeared on the territory of KZ? The 1st man in Kz appeared 1mln.y.ago, in the south of Kz, near Karatau mountains, in Paleolit Epoch. The main difference human from animal was ability to make tools. In this period archeologists found petroglyphs, cave paintings. Man manufactured the knives, saws, spears, drills, hammers, chisels. Increase in the number of tools made ​​of bones - fish hooks, harpoons, needles with ears. The 1st stone tool was rubilo and chopper, chopping. Also was appeared the religious views. People protected from animals and began to settle in caves. Caves were the 1st habitation for men.

 

3=4 What are the main periods of The Stone Age? Archeologists divided The Stone Age(2.5mln.y.ago-II millennium BC) on 3 main periods:

I. Paleolit-2.mln.y.ago. It divides on:

1) Early-2.5mln-140mill.BC

2) Middle-140-40mill.BC

3) Late-40-12mill.BC

II Mezolit-12-5mill.BC

III Neolit-5-3mill.BC

IVEneolit-3-2,8mill.BC

Humans used only stone tools, not able to make pottery - pottery. produced as toolsmade ​​of bone, leather and wood. They engaged in hunting and gathering. Fishing was just beginning to appear, agriculture and cattle breeding were not known. The beginning of the Paleolithi-the appearance on earth of ancient ape-like humans, Homo habilis. At the end of the Paleolithic evolution completes the advent of the modern type of human (Homo sapiens) At the end of the Paleolithic humans began to create the most ancient works of art, and there were signs of the existence of religious. The climate is getting sometimes warmer, sometimes colder.

Mezolit. In mezolit people had to change their habitation because of animal’s migration. Men invented bows and arrows and making mikrolits, strengthened tribal community. Humans began to domesticate wild animals and cultivate plants. Dogs were domesticated.

Neolit.

1) Creation primitive weaving loom

2) Appearance ceramic tableware with decorations. Therefore mezolit is sometimes called “Epoch clay pots”.

3) Achievement the highest level in manufacturing of stone.

4) Transition from assuming household to productive.

Created new tools, as hummers with handle, mattocks, and millstones. There are more the 500 camps, the most famous camp is Sekseul in Kyzylorda region (descried bones of cows and sheep). People believed in afterlife, we knew it from tombs.



Eneolit.

Men began to use copper. In this period people first used the tools from metal. Dissolution matriarchy and began the era patriarchy. Cattle breeding separated from agriculture. On the camp Shebir(Mangystau) were found copper and stone tools.

5.What changes took place during the period of primitive society? Achievement the highest level in manufacturing of stone in Neolit. The 1st stone tool was rubilo and chopper, chopping in Paleolit. in Paleolit period Man manufactured the knives, saws, spears, drills, hammers, chisels. Mezolit-men invented bows and arrows and making mikrolits. Eneolit-Creation primitive weaving loom. Created new tools, as hummers with handle, mattocks, and millstones. Men began to use copper in Eneolit. Mezolit-Humans began to domesticate wild animals.

 

6. What periods is the history of mankind divided into?

The Stone Age(2.5mln.y.ago-II millennium BC) on 3 main periods:

II. Paleolit-2.mln.y.ago. It divides on:

1) Early-2.5mln-140mill.BC

2) Middle-140-40mill.BC

3) Late-40-12mill.BC

II Mezolit-12-5mill.BC

III Neolit-5-3mill.BC

IVEneolit-3-2,8mill.BC

 

7. Bronze age(2800-900 years BC) 3 periods: 1)early bronze, ”fedorovskaya”(18-16 centuries BC); 2)middle “alakulskaya”(15-13), 3)late, “begazi-dandibai”(12-8)The main tribe-andronov tribe, who used Indo-Iranian language; occupied mainly central KZ. In the epoch of B.-destruction of clan relationships and forming of tribal unions. Tsar-the governor; also tribal leaders, priests and commanders. In the B. epoch-formation of ownership inequality. Type of household-mixed; 1st division of labor: separation of cattle-breeding from agriculture. New forms of cattle-breeding:: pasturing and stabling; bred horses, sheep, camels. Mattock farming. Metallurgy: the technique of getting bronze(by mixing copper with tin)

Bronze age(2800-900 years BC) 3 periods: 1)early bronze, ”fedorovskaya”(18-16 centuries BC); 2)middle “alakulskaya”(15-13), 3)late, “begazi-dandibai”(12-8). Iron Age(VIII cen.BC-VIctn.): Early(VIII-IIIctn BC). Late(IIIcen.BC-VIcen)

The most ancient period-time from appearance of man in KZ to appearance of states in KZ(VIII-VIIcenBC). The ancient period-appearance of state formation(Saks,Uysuns,Huns,Kangly) their prosperity,crisis and decline(VIIIcenBC-VcenAD). Medieval period(VcenBC-30-s XVIIIcen).

Period of New time(30-s XVIIIcen-Febr.1917(colonial period)). Modern history-1)since the overthrow of the tsar in Oct.Revolution n’ the establishment of Soviet Power(1917-1920) n’ before the collapse of The USSR. 2)the proclamation of Independence on 16Dec.1991 to contemporary years;the formation n’ the development of KZ.

 

8. Andronov culture. It is one of the hugest culture in Bronze Age on the territory of Eurasia. The name “Andronov culture” was given from the 1st discovery near Andronov village (near Achinsk town, South Sibiria). The monuments of Andronov culture were found from Ural to Enisey, from taiga to Pamir. Archeologists say that andronov people were European. AcademicianV.P.Alekseev described them and said that they looked like Caucasians. The basic place for habitation was The Central KZ. There are more than 30 settlements, 150 tombs. Housing were half dug-out, covered with branches, skins. They also use housing like urta. The main culture of Andronov tribes were pasturing, stable cattle breeding, agriculture played assisting role. Andronovcy used the stone mattocks, copper and bronze sickles. There are huge quantities of petroglyphs of Bronze Age in Tamgaly cave.

 

9. History - one of the oldest sciences. It is nearly 2,500 years. Its founder is the ancient Greek historian Herodotus (V century. BC). In the ancient Greek word "historia"was meant - the story of the past, about unrecognized.

The first rudiments of historical knowledge found in the oral tradition, epics, myths. HISTORY - is:

1. development of nature and society;

2. complex of social sciences studying the past of mankind in all its concreteness and variety.

All events that stay in memory of generations, form the contents of a historical chronicle. This is necessary to recreate the past.

 

12. Stages of primitive community.

Man appeared due to evolutional process of development. Scientist called the 1st human as “homo habilis”, lived 1mln.y.ago, his bones were found in 1974y. Kenia. Then there was Petekantrop-1mln.y.ago-found in1891-island Yava. The next was Sinantrop, 200-500 thous.y.ago-China. Petekantrop and Sinantrop were called “hono erectus”. Neandertalec,100-35thous.y.ago-Germany. After there was “homo sapiens”-“cromanyon”, 35-40thous.y.ago-in France.

13) Paleolithic and Mesolithic Ages in the territory of Kazakhstan. Paleolithic (2,5 mln-12 thousand years BC)-the most ancient period in the history of humankind; the formation of the man happens; stone tools; using fire; most significant stages of P. are situated in the South of KZ(Karatau mount-s, Zhambyl area, the largest-Batpak) Paleolithic is divided into lower, middle(mustye) and upper. For P. period assuming forms of household(hunting, fishing, gathering) are characteristic. The form of the society-from primitive herd to human society. Mesolithic(12-5 thousands of years BC)About 20 stages in KZ;main features: invention of bow and arrow, microlits; 10 th. y. ago-beginning of agriculture, domestication of animals, cultivation of plants; 8 th. y. ago-favorable climate; making clothes; emergence of animals and plants of modern type. People were already experienced hunters, fishermen and collectors

14)Neolithic and Eneolithic in the territory of KZ. Neolithic(5-3 th. years BC) More than 500 stages:Saksaul in Kyzylorda region, Karakuduk, Karaungur; Ust-Narym, Botay. New tools: mattock, wooden plow, needles and other inventions for weaving, in North-Eastern Pribalkhashye-tools from jasper and quartzite. The form of household: producing(“Neolithic revolution”), forming of primitive cattle-breeding, pottery, mining, domestication of horse; matriarchy. Eneolithic(3-2,8 th.y.BC)-the main specialty-mastering of metal(copper, gold, lead); rudimentary religious ideas(animism, totemism, magic). Division of labor, patriarchy(as a result of developing of metallurgy and cattle-breeding)

15)Bronze age. Development of economic and public life. Bronze age(2800-900 years BC) 3 periods: 1)early bronze, ”fedorovskaya”(18-16 centuries BC); 2)middle “alakulskaya”(15-13), 3)late, “begazi-dandibai”(12-8)The main tribe-andronov tribe, who used Indo-Iranian language; occupied mainly central KZ. In the epoch of B.-destruction of clan relationships and forming of tribal unions. Tsar-the governor; also tribal leaders, priests and commanders. In the B. epoch-formation of ownership inequality. Type of household-mixed; 1st division of labor: separation of cattle-breeding from agriculture. New forms of cattle-breeding:: pasturing and stabling; bred horses, sheep, camels. Mattock farming. Metallurgy: the technique of getting bronze(by mixing copper with tin)

16)Andronov and Begazi-Dandibai archeological cultures. Cult of the dead(belief in life after death). Types of burials: cremation(early bronze), and burring in squirming position with the head to the West). Cult of Fire-the God Agni; they sacrificed a goat to him. Yama-the God of death(was painted with a string in his hands); Mitra-the Sun God, Veretragna-the God of thunder; the Bull-the symbol of fertility and power. Amulets-fangs of wild animals. The ceremony of holding the first furrow(as the guarantee of good harvest) The sacred place in the andronovs’ house was the hearth. For And. And BD cultures petrogliphs are characteristic features; they are rock paintings. Most often pictures-wild bull or camel.

17)Sakies’ tribal unions in the territory of KZ. Saks(7-1 cen-s BC) The epoch of iron.Saks were one of the first tribal unions on the territory of KZ. There were saks paradaraya, tigrakhauda, haumavarga, massagets, arimasps, appasiaks, argippeys. Saks were deserved opponents of powerful Persian states. Saks played an important role in the world policy of that time; were active participants of historic events. In the epoch of saks cattle-breeding strengthens its positions. The social structure of saka society was on the edge of destruction of primitive system and creation of military democracy. The state was governed by the Tsar. 3 groups: commanders, priests and “peasants”(cattle-breeders and farmers). Women were in honorable position; scripts tell that the governors were often women in saka society. Ex: Tomiris, who ruled in the 6th cen-ry and won Persian king Kir. Saka tribes were also a barrier for Alexander Makedonsky on his way to the East.

18)Public structure of Saks. Saks(7-1 cen-s BC) . The social structure of saka society was on the edge of destruction of primitive system and creation of military democracy. The head of all tribal unions-the Tsar; the link between heaven and earth(from the community of warriors). 3 social groups: warriors, priests, peasants. The equality of men and women(tsarinas Zarina and Tomiris). The majority of Saka society consisted of cattle-breeders and farmers. All important questions and decisions were discussed on the public meeting. Saks experienced nomadic cattle-breeding, they moved from place to place, lead the nomadic way of life, their portable dwellings were called “yurt”.

19)War and military art of Saks. The social structure of saka society was on the edge of destruction of primitive system and creation of military democracy. The achieved a great success in military affair. They had a war with Persians. Kir, Persian king, was defeated in 530 by Saka tsarina Tomiris. In 519-518-the campaign of Dariy1 against Saks. The pasture man Shirak became especially famous, as he lead the Persians to waterless desert. Persians managed to capture part of the territories and Saks had to pay contribution and supplied their warriors; Persians’ and Saks’ united forces conquered Egypt and Greece 490-Marafon battle against Greece.The 4 cent-ry is famous for Alex-r Maked. Conquests; Saks stopped his invasion to the East, became the barrier to the East.

20)Scythian and Saka cultiure. The strong influence of Akhmenid Iran. Religion: deities: the Earth, the Sun, fire, war. Horse-symbol of Sun and fire; block-symbol of thunder. Belief in life after death. 2 concepts about the world: lower(underground), middle(earth) and upper(heaven). The model of space-in the headdress of Gold Man: the Sun is the Universe, horse-the earth, bird-heaven,goat-underground world, arrows-parts of the world. Famous monuments: kurgans with “moustache”, which served as the guideline. The largest-Tsar kurgans. Tasmola culture was widespread, its monuments were found in Pavlodar region. Burrials of Saka leaders: 8 cent.-Shiliktinskiy kurgan(the 3rd Gold Man); Issyk kurgan in Almaty;. Chirik-Rabat: the temple with the burials of aristocracy, warriors. Famous Saka philosopher-Anakharsis.

21)Early state unions of Usuns and Kanly. Usuns(3rd cent-ry BC-4th cent-ry CE) They occupied mainly the territory of Zhetysu and S. KZ region. Their capital-Kyzyl Angar. They replaced Saka tigrakhauda tribes in Zhetysu. The governor-gunmo(the great bek); tribal leaders-beks. There was ownership inequality among Usuns. The basis of the society-cattle-breeders and farmers. The state was divided into 3 parts. Cattle-breeding-the basis of household. (horses, sheep, goats, camels) Agriculture: they planted barley and millet. Metallurgy: produced gold, copper, bronze, led, iron. Made weapons, jewellery, mirrors, etc. Religion: worshiped supernatural powers; believed in life after death and put personal things in the graves. Kanly(3rd cent. BC-5th cent. CE)Settled in the S. of KZ. The leader-khan; 3 deputies. The state was divided into 5 parts. The power was passed by right of succession. Agriculture was widely developed, as the conditions were excellent. Religion: cult of ancestors; they made sacrifices. Arch. Monuments: kaunshinskaya, otrar-karatauskaya, zhetyasarskaya cultures. A lot of information about Kanly’s state can be found in Chinese scripts (Syma Tsyan).

22)Hun tribes in the territory of KZ. Huns(4th cent. BC-3rd cent. CE) Till 209 year BC were subjected to Khan dynasty. Military democracy; the leader-shanyuj;temniks(dukes); each ruled 10 th. tumens. 24 clans ruled by elders. 3 times a year-public meeting. Private ownership for dwellings, animals and land. Captives were used as slaves. Chzhi- Chzhi defeated Khan’ dynasty and united huns. 55 year BC-division of the state into N. and S. Huns(after several wars) 93-the 2nd wave; known as “The great migration of peoples”. In 437 Huns smashed up Burgundy. 4th century-Attila’s campaigns, which contributed to the fall of the Great Rome Empire. After his death tribal unions broke apart.

23)Historical conditions of formation and development of the international caravan trade. Great Silk Road. The great Silk road began functioning in the 2nd century BC. The old North road appeared by the initiative of the emperor U-di, who needed thoroughbred horses for his army. Some day in 138-126 years these horses were seen by the dignitary Chzhan Tsyan in Central Asia. He also told the emperor about the fact that there is no silk-producing handicraft in other countries and advised to export their silk, wine and sweet fruits abroad in exchange for good horses. In 121st year BC the first trade caravan with silk and bronze mirrors approached to the Fergana oasis through Tyan-Shan mountains. The trade was interrupted by the uprisings in 17-27, but very soon continued on the new South road. The GSR played an important part in the economic and cultural relations of the nations of Southwest Asia, Caucasus, Middle Asia and China. Silk was not the only material, which was exported; also: gold, silver, semiprecious stones, mirrors, wool, leather, carpets. The GSR continued functioning u to the 13th-14th cent-s, came to decline because of Mongol invasions.

24) Turkic and Western- Turkic khanates.The first and the brightest example of Nomad Empire is considered to be Turkic kaganate, which was founded in the year 552 and existed till 603. The founder-Bumyn. The basic of this state was not infrastructure on a certain territory, but strategically important meaning of the land. The dominant tribe, which settled here was “tele”, there were also karluks, uigurs, uisuns and many other nomadic tribes, which joined later. The type of household in this state-nomadic and semi-nomadic cattle-breeding. In the whole Turkic kaganate played a great part in the consolidation of Turkic tribes, it lead to the finishing period of class-society formation. Turkic kaganate was one of the greatest, most powerful empires in the world. This can be proved with the fact that Chinese states paid contribution to Turkic kaganate. The power of this state can be explained with the variety of tribes, which settled there, all the tribes were united with common aims(mainly capturing new lands and getting more power in the world arena). In 603 Turkic kaganate broke off into West-Turkic and East-Turkic. East-Turkic kaganate, or so-called “the state of 10 tribes”, followed the traditions of nomad state, the main type of household remained nomadic cattle-breeding.

 

25. Turgesh Khanate and its role in the fight of the people of South Kazakhstan and Central Asia against the Arab aggression. Turgesh Khanate had existed in 704-756. The founder of Turgesh dynasty was Ushlik Kagan. During his reign the capital city was Suyab. After his death Sulu Kagan took the place on the throne. He chose new capital city- Taraz. When he was a ruler, Turgesh Khanate resisted Arab’s invasion from the west, Chinese’s from the east and East Turkish Khanate’s. In order to save country’s independence, Sulu led the fight in 3 ways. In 748 Chinese troops invaded Zhetysu, captured and destroyed Suyab. In 751 there was great fight between turgeh-arabian army and Chinese near Atlaha city. Chinese troops were defeated. Atlaha battle had big historian meaning, because Chinese had left Zhetysu forever. Arab and Chinese invasions weakened Turgesh Khanate and it fell under the power of Karluk in 756.

26. Karluk State had existed in 756-940. Firstly they lived from Dzungarian mountains to Syrdaria. The reason why they moved to Zhetysu was their defeat from Uyghur Khanate. In 756 Karluks used the decline of Turgeshes and took their power in Zhetysu. Administrative city was Suyab. Big influence on development of material and spiritual culture had Silk Way. In order to be save from Chinese, Karluks expanded their territory by capturing Kashgaria in 766-775. In 840 Karluks in union with Kirgiz defeated Uyghur Khanate. In the middle IX c. in order to spread Islam, Samanids started the war with Karluks and captured Ispidzhab and Taraz. Despite the religion power of Samanids, political power in these cities was in Karluk’s hands. Arab invasion and civil struggle weakened Karlul Khanate and it fell under the power of Turkic rulers of Kashgaria.

 

27. Oguz State. Oguz State had existed in the end of IX- beginning of the XI cc. It was formed in the Syrdaria region. The capital city was Yangikent. Oguz State led long fight with Khazar Khanate for lands and trade routes in Black Sea region. In 965 there was held military union between Oguz Dzabgu and Kiev Tsar, which was against Khazar. The result of such union was complete defeat of Khazar Khanate. Russian sources states, that in 985 Vladimir Tsar in the union with Oguz were fighting against Volga Bulgaria. So, we can see that Oguz had good military relation with Russian State. In the beginning of XI c there was seen a decline of Oguz State, which was a consequence of struggle of Oguzs by the ruling power and increasing taxes. Seldzuks took advantage of it and captured Dzhent City. It completely fell under the power of Kypchac tribes.

 

28. Kimak Khanate. Kimak Khanate had existed in the end of IX- beginning of the XI cc. Kimak Khanate was formed on the territory of North and Central Kazakhstan after the liquidation of Uyghur Khanate. The capital city was Imakia. The ruler had the title kagan. His power was hereditary. Kipchak tribes were the most known and powerful tribes under the rule of Kimaks. At the beginning of the XI century Kimaks and Kipchaks pushed Oguzes in a southerly direction, the Pechenegs in the west, the Karluk in the southeast and Ugrian in the north direction to the Siberian taiga. Internecine struggle weakened Kimak Khanate and it stopped its existence after frequent attacks of Karahanids

 

29. Kipchac Khanate. Since the end of VIII to the beginning of XI century Kipchaks were a part of the Kimak State. In the beginning of XI century after the fall of Kimak Khaganate, Kimaks territory fully was inserted into Kipchak Khanate. Since the XI to the beginning of the XIII century on the main territory of Kazakhstan except Zhetysu were dominated Kipchaks. The territory of Kipchak settlements in historical sources is called Dasht-i-Kipchak. East Dasht-i-Kipchak occupied the territory between the Volga and the Altai. At the beginning of the XI century on the way of Kipchaks to the southern regions of Russia and South Kazakhstan, Oguz State was a barrier. But at the beginning of the XI century Oguz state experienced a decline, and Kipchaks used it and Oghuz finally ousted from the banks of the Syr Darya and the Aral Sea. Kipchak Khans have fought the same way and with the Khorezm State. To enhance its impact on Kipchaks, Khorezmians spread Islam between them. In the XII century Aral Sea region, Otrar and Sygnak for years were places where Kipchaks were fighting with Khorezm. Antagonism of Kipchaks and Khwarezmians finally stopped after winning their by Mongols in XIIIc.

 

30. State of Karakhanids. This state existed in 942-1212. It was created in Zhetysu and eastern Turkestan. The founder of the state was Satuq Bogra Khan. The capital city of the state was Balasagun. In 960, Musa Hagan in order to consolidate his power announced Islam the state religion. Thus, in Kazakhstan for the first time was announced Islam as the state religion in Qarakhanid state. In 999 Karakhanids as a result of successful campaigns captured the capital of the Samanids-Bukhara, and completely subdued the territory of Maveranahr. In the 30's of XII century from the east Kara-Khitai invaded Semirechye. In a battle near the city of Samarkand, they defeated the allied forces of the Seljuk and Karakhanids. So in the first half of the XII century power over the Karakhanids moved to Carakitaiys. At the beginning of the XIII century state of Khorezm increased in the west and in 1212 Khorezm Shah Muhammad finally conquered the western part of Karakhanids. At the beginning of the XIII century, escaped tribes from the Mongol led by the Naiman Khan Kiichlug conquered the eastern part of the State Karakhanids.

 

31. State of Carakitaiy in Dzetisu. According to Chinese sources, the descendants of Carakitaiy lived in the Central Asia and were called Khitans. In 924, the Khitan tribes have created state Liao, which occupied the territory from the Pacific Ocean to the Altai. Moving westward Khitan tribes in Muslim sources were called Carakitaiy. In 1125 the Khitan tribes led by Eluy Dashi invaded Zhetysu and created there their own state. One of the reasons for invasion of the Kara-Khitai to Zhetysu is the decline of Karakhanids. In 1141 near the city of Samarkand Carakitaiy defeated the allied forces of the Seljuk and Karahanids. The rulers of Karahanid since 1141 were vassals of the Karakitai gurkhan. In the state of the Kara-Khitai head of state held the title gurkhan and heritage authorities had the right not only men but also women. Families living in border areas were obliged to defend the borders. In 1204 defeated by Genghis Khan, Naiman led by Kiichlug moved to Zhetysu. Here they are faced with Carakitaiy and in 1208 applied to them a defeat. In 1212, the Kara-Khitai State fell under the blows of Khorezm Shah and Naimans, led by Kiichlug Khan. The territory of the state became a possession of Naiman.

 

32. Medieval cities of Kazakhstan (VI-XII).

Ispidzhab (Sairam) - "City on the White River" - mentioned in the sources from the VII century. Center of District. An important administrative center, as well as a hub for transit trade, and religion. In the XIII century was captured by the Mongols, but it did not hurt much.

Otrar (Farab) - located near the confluence of Arys in the Syr Darya. Center of the Okrug Farab (Otrar oasis). Through it were many caravan routes. Town appeared in the first centuries AD, but the first mention in written sources was in IX century. In the VII-VIII centuries Otrar was economically and politically self-sufficient (Otrar coins). In the IX-X centuries Otrar was among the cities of Ispidzhab, which is associated with the subordination of it to Khaliphat, and then - Samanids, but the dependence was nominal. In XI-XII centuries Otrar grows and develops. But this development was interrupted by the Mongol conquest. 1218 - "Otrar catastrophe." 1219 - destruction of Otrar.

Turkestan - the center of Turkestan oasis (ancient name was Iassy). In the VIII century was known as Shavgar District. The capital was the city of the same name then became the capital city Iassy, known from the XII century. Iassy from the beginning was located on the site of ancient settlement Kultobe from the territory of Turkestan. In the XIII century, Muhammad ibn Tekesh minted its own coins here. During the Mongol conquest, Turkestan's fate was unknown. One of the most important commercial, cultural and religious centers.

Sauran - 35 km. north-east of Turkestan. The first mention was in the X century. Located on the site Karatobe before the XII century. In the XIII century was moved to a new location(approximately 3 km. to the west).

Yangikent - capital of the country Oguz (New Guziya). One of the largest shopping centers. Existed prior to the XIII century.
Dzhendem - X-XIII century. The highest activity of the city. The beginning of the XIII century - the capital of Kipchak. During the Mongol invasion was captured.

Sygnak - mentioned since X century. In the XII century - the capital of Kipchak. 1220 - was destroyed by the Mongols.
Taraz - the first mention in the VI century. Was on the bank of the Talas. In the VII century - Taraz - one of the largest cities on the Silk Road. IX-XI century - the rise and development of the city. X-XI century - the capital of one of the principalities of Karakhanids. In the XIII century was destroyed by order of Harunshah, but was rebuilt.

 

33. Science and culture of the X-XII cc. Al Farabi. Al Farabi- philosopher, mathematician, music theorist. One of the leading representatives of the medieval Eastern philosophy. Al-Farabi - the author of comments on the works of Aristotle (hence his nickname of honor "second Aristotle") and Plato. His writings have influenced Ibn Sina, Ibn Baggio, Ibn Tufail, Ibn Rushd, as well as philosophy and science of medieval Western Europe. He was born in Otrar. He visited Tashkent, Buhara, Samarkand, where he had been learning and working. To continue education philosopher went to Baghdad and began to explore various fields of science and languages. He studied medicine, logic, and Greek. Baghdad was a Mecca for intellectuals of that time. Soon Farabi became a famous scholar. In 941 year Farabi moved to Damascus, where he spent the remainder part of his life, engaged in scientific work. Farabi made ​​significant contributions to musicology.

 

34. Science and culture of the X-XII cc. Usuf Balasaguni. He lived in the XI century in the state Karakhanids. He was a turk writer. Yusuf was born in the capital city of Karakhanids - Balasagun. Education Yusuf Balasaguni received in acknowledged cultural centers of that time - Farab, Kashgar, Bukhara. In the perfect possession of Arab and Persian, he worked on the philosophical and scientific works on various branches of knowledge. Educated, with wise life experiences, he came to Kashgar, and here for eighteen months of hard work had written a great poetic work. At age 50 he completed his poem "Kutadgu Bilig", introduced it to the ruler of Kashgar, and was awarded the "Hass Hadzhibey". "Qutatqu Bilig" - the first work written in the language of the ancient Turks and fully preserved. Many of the Turkic-speaking peoples can be rightly regarded as a product of the source or the first masterpiece of its written literature. He died in 1085 at the age of 66 years. He was buried in a mausoleum in the city of Kashgar

 

35. Science and culture of the X-XII cc. Makhmud Kashgari. Turkic scholar. He was born in the reign of the dynasty Karakhanids and came from the highest circles of the nobility Carahanid. His father ran the town Balasagun. Kashgari has worked mainly in Baghdad and is known for created "Assembly of Turkic dialects" -Glossary of various Turkic languages. Mahmud Kashgari's famous book "Divan lugat at-Turk" is a Turkic encyclopedia in the full sense of this word. In it was collected and summarized extensive historical-cultural, ethnographic and linguistic material. It is a monument of Turkish culture, depicting ethical values ​​and norms of behavior, a particular world view of Turkic peoples in the XI century, absorbed all the previous legacy of their ancestors. In the book, along with the ancient Zoroastrian-Shamanistic view, embodied elements of a new ideology - Islam and its branches such as Sufism. Here he introduced the main Turkic folklore genres - ritual and lyrical songs, fragments of the heroic epic, historical traditions and legends (about the campaign of Alexander of Macedon in the area of ​​Turks chigiley), more than 400 proverbs, and oral sayings.

 

36. Science and culture of the X-XII cc. Akhmed Yassawi. Yassawi was born to Sheykh Ibrahim. At age seven, when he was orphaned by the loss of his father, Yassawi was raised by another spiritual father, Arslan Baba. By age seven, Ahmad Yasawi had already advanced through a series of high spiritual stages and then, under the direction of Arslan Baba, the young Ahmad reached a high level of maturity and slowly began to win fame from every quarter. His father Shaikh Ibrahim had already been renowned in that region for performing countless feats and many legends were told of him. Consequently, it was recognized that, with respect to his lineage as well, this quiet and unassuming young boy, who always listened to his elder sister, held a spiritually important position. A mausoleum was later built on the site of his grave by Tamerlane the Great in the city (today called Türkistan). The Yasaviyya Tariqah which he founded continued to be influential for several centuries afterwards, with the Yasavi Sayyid Ata Sheikhs holding a
the shamanistic elements compared to other Sufi Orders. The first Kazakh-Turkish university, Ahmet Yesevi University, and liceum, Hoca Ahmed Yesevi Lisesi, were named in his honor. Naqshbandi Sufi Idries Shah mentions Ahmed Yasavi's lineage in his "The Book of the Book". Yasavi Sufis are also present in Kashmir. They came to Kashmir from Turkistan via Silk Route with Hazrat Amir-e-Kabir Mir Syed Ali Hamdani. A historical background of the Yasavi order can be found in the book SILSLAY YASAVI, written by Peerzada Mohammad Shafi Yasavi, eldest member of the Yasavi family in Kashmir. The book is written in Urdu.

 

37.Economy of the Turkic states.

In the early Middle Ages, some cities appeared in the field regular hibernation. The growing number of cities, the development of settled culture in the territory of Kazakhstan is observed in X-XII centuries. During this period, most major cities in territory of Kazakhstan and were Ispidzhab Otrar. According to M. Kashgari in the VI c. Ispidzhab city was called Sairam. In Central and Eastern Kazakhstan growing number of cities and the development of sedentary culture is observed in the X-XI cc. Only in Zhetysu found over one hundred medieval towns. Increase in city areas by forming and growth of rabad (outer part of the city) is observed in X-XII centuries. At the same time an increasing number of urban residents at the expense of settling nomads. In medieval Kazakhstan expansion and strengthening of relations between the city and nomadic world contributed primarily interested in mutual trade. Period of development of the relationship between the two worlds in the medieval Kazakhstan were X-XII centuries. In the Middle Ages the establishment of economic and diplomatic relations between East and West contributed to the Great Silk Road. Expansion of trade through the Silk Road in the VI. contributed to the establishment of trade and diplomatic relations between the Turkic khanate and the Byzantine Empire. The main trading centers in southern Kazakhstan were Taraz and Ispidzhab. Trade, economic relations and cultural links of states and cities along the Silk Road were suspended in XIII-XIVcc.by the Mongol invasion

 


Date: 2015-01-29; view: 621


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