English economic materials find a number of grammatical features. Naturally, there is no "a scientific and technical, legal or economic grammar" any. In economic texts, the same syntactic structures and morphological forms, as well as in other functional styles are used. However a number of the grammatical phenomena are noted in this style more often than in others, some phenomena, on the contrary, meet in it rather seldom, others - are used only with characteristic lexical "filling". [9;117]
For English economic materials definitions of concepts and the description of real objects by the instruction on their properties are especially characteristic. It predetermines wide use of simple two-compound sentences with the compound predicate consisting of a verb of a sheaf and a predicative:
Profits is the revenue minus costs - Затраты вычтенные из дохода составляют прибыль. (New Product Sales Forecasting)
The adjective or prepositional turn often acts as a predicative: These materials are low-cost - Эти материалы по сниженной цене. (New Product Sales Forecasting).
The hidden definitions are also numerous attributive groups which in a large number are used in economic literature: separation payments-monetary payments at dismissal from work, service establishment the enterprise of sector of services (service) (A difficult dance)
Frequent use of the cause and effect unions and logical sheaves at the beginning of the paragraph, earlier noted generally in the middle of a compound sentence becomes one of characteristics of modern economic texts in English. These words give to the text logicality, connecting its separate parts, and in certain cases bear emotional loading, that is are at the same time used for allocation of certain most significant information that has to be surely reflected in a target text. Most often as linking words the following adverbs and the unions meet: firstly, secondly, still, also, consequently, moreover, nevertheless, however, yet, likewise, etc.
E.g. Moreover, Java's ability to work with different platforms is important in the
idea was included - аналогичная мысль звучала…
The conditions of the contract and measures on insurance and of investment risks have become an important component of competitiveness of the TNC in the global markets of the capital. The state and mixed organizations on insurance of the credits can hardly accept on insurance the risks of investments of capital in developed countries…(Insurance of investment risks in the transnational companies) -
Noted grammatical features of economic materials have direct impact on communicative character of such materials which has to be reproduced when translating. Detection of language specifics of economic transfer is necessary for definition of influence of these specifics on translation process, on character and ways of achievement of equivalence when translating materials of this look. Extent of such influence depends not only on grammatical features of the original, but also on their ratio with the similar phenomena in target language. The course and result of translational process in many respects is defined by what common and distinctive language features the similar types of materials in initial and translated languages possess.
Replacement - the most widespread and diverse type of translational transformation. Speaking about grammatical replacements we mean that in translation process such grammatical units as are exposed to replacement: forms of words, parts of speech, sentence parts, types of a syntactic link, etc. Besides, can be exposed to replacement not only separate units, but also the whole designs. [4;58]
Let's consider on examples from articles those types of replacements which are peculiar to economic texts:
1. Replacement of forms of the word - number replacement at nouns, time at verbs.
2. Replacement of a part of speech. For example, replacement of an adjective by a noun: Given how fast European economies are shrinking, nobody doubts that worse lies ahead. -Учитывая то, как быстро сжимаются экономические системы в Европе, никто не сомневается, что худшее впереди.
3. Replacement of sentence parts. Such replacements are necessary in a consequence of that in Russian the word order in the offer differs from English language. In the Russian offer the words bearing for the first time given information, are put at the end of the offer, and words which bear information already known are put at the beginning. In English mainly direct word order in the offer, i.e. a subject in most cases precedes a predicate, addition follows a predicate. To "data" in the offer there is in most cases a subject, and "new" - "group of a predicate or group of a predicate any of members (e.g., addition). It causes of syntactic reorganization of the offer. The most usual example of such syntactic reorganization - replacement of an English passive design of the Russian active [4;59]:
The motives of invest and savings of the various participants of the economic relations are defined both by the factors of microenvironment - Мотивы для инвестирования и сохранения участников экономических отношений определяются как факторами микросреды, так и….. (Insurance of investment risks in the transnational companies)
The heading in English should pay special attention. The heading can contain elements therefore the translator starts in his transfer only after the translated text. [2;102]
In our opinion, headings of economic texts have the same features, as newspaper and information material. So, for headings of newspapers frequent use of jargons is characteristic. As we were convinced on examples of articles investigated by us - and to economic articles use of special lexicon, colloquial lexicon and a professional slang in заголовках:Bubble - the Economic bubble [Eb] of is threatening G20 walkout is characteristic - France threatens to leave the summit of the big twenty. [G20]
Let's review examples of headings of other articles studied by us and their translation into Russian:
The Principles Of Supply Chain Management - the Principles of management of the organization of deliveries. [SCM] this article was published in the International economic magazine, in it the principles of improvement of management are considered, transfer of heading didn't make work, despite a sentence structure (the curtailed definition).
Following example, Obama tells banks work together [Obama].
When translating there is a replacement with a perfective aspect of a verb "Obama asked banks to work together" that reflects article events more precisely.
The heading New Product Sales Forecasting [NPSF], we translated as follows: Sales forecast of new goods. Feature of this heading that it belongs to so-called verbal headings and as we see an example of the curtailed definition (instead of The Forecast of Sales of The New Product), changes of a word order and article omission that, in turn, too is grammatical feature of headings of economic articles.
In the name Insurance Of Investment Risks In The Transnational Companies [Insurance] which we translated as Insurance upon investment risks in the international companies, to us the predicate omission, special lexicon of economic character meets.
Jobs crisis [JC], - Crisis of workplaces. In this case, when translating heading we are compelled to explain in Russian about what crisis there is a speech (crisis of workplaces, instead of works).