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Physical and human resources

Similar to other countries of the former USSR, Kazakhstan inherited an oversized hospital infrastructure from the Soviet period. In has since reduced the number of hospitals and hospital beds significantly and also has started to renew its health infrastructure, but the ratio of hospital beds per population is still higher than in the countries constituting the European Union before May 2004 (EU15) and differs greatly across oblasts. There has also been a decline in the length of stay in hospitals in recent years.

In terms of human resources, the country faces several challenges, including in terms of their actual numbers, specialty mix and distribution across the country. Rural and remote areas continue to experience a shortage in health personnel, while larger cities are much better staffed. There is also an imbalance towards specialists services, to the detriment of primary health care facilities. The need for certain categories of health professionals, such as specialists in health management or health economics, is particularly acute, especially as health care providers have received greater autonomy to manage their resources. The Ministry of Health has started to address these issues and plans to develop a new system of human resource management. In has also embarked on reforms of medical education, with the aim of brining it loser to international standards. One of the challenges is that salary levels, in particular for nurses, remain low.

Speaking. Complete the sentence.

1) Two comprehensive reform….

2) After a spell of developing….

3) One of the key challenges….

4) Financing according to…..

5) A new outpatient drug….

6) Partly resulting from….

7) Since 2010, resources for…..

8) Similar to other countries…..

Writing. Translate the following sentences:

1) Since becoming independent, Kazakhstan has undertaken major efforts in reforming its post-Soviet health system.

2) The State Guaranteed Benefit Package includes emergency care, and specified outpatient and inpatient services.

3) Patients also often pay for medicines and medical supplies in hospitals, and for pharmaceuticals, aids or dental care in outpatient settings.

4) Similar to other countries of the former USSR, Kazakhstan inherited an oversized hospital infrastructure from the Soviet period.

5) Rural and remote areas continue to experience a shortage in health personnel, while larger cities are much better staffed.

 

Speaking. Make up your own sentences with the following word-combinations:

1) Reform programmes

2) Inpatient facilities

3) Health financing

4) Health expenditure

5) Health insurance system

6) Hospital infrastructure

7) Salary levels

 

Writing. Fill in the table.

Noun Verb adjective adverb
       

 

Independent, development, service, increase, include, substantially, low, budget, mandatory, remain, type, reproductive, partly, improve, payment, greatly, human, significantly, receive, shortage, particularly, remain.




Date: 2016-04-22; view: 881


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Reform programme of Health Care in Kazakhstan | D. RAWHIDE. WILD WEST TOWN
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