Exercise 4. Read the text and underline the main points as a list of guidelines on negotiating.
There has been a great deal of research into the art of negotiation, and, in particular, into what makes a 'good' negotiator.
One point most researchers seem to agree on is that good negotiators try to create harmonious atmosphere at the start of a negotiation. They make an effort to establish a good rapport with their opposite number, so that there will be a willingness - on both sides - to make concessions, if this should prove necessary.
Good negotiators generally wish to reach an agreement which meets the interests of both sides. They therefore tend to take a long-term view, ensuring that the agreement will improve, or at least not harm, their relationship with the other party. On the other hand, a poor negotiator tends to look for immediate gains, forgetting that the real benefits of a deal may come much later.
Skilful negotiators are flexible. They do not “lock themselves” into a position so that they will lose face if they have to compromise. They have a ranget of objectives, thus allowing themselves to make concessions, for example, “I aim to buy this machine for £2,000” and not “I must buy it for £2,000”. Poor negotiators have limited objectives, and may not even work out a “fall-back” position.
Successful negotiators do not want a negotiation to break down. If problems arise, they suggest ways of resolving them. The best negotiators are persuasive articulate people, who select a few key arguments and repeat them. This suggests that tenacity is an important quality.
Finally, it is essential to be a good listener and to check frequently that everything has been understood by both parties.
Exercise 5. Fill in the gaps.
Small, get down, representatives, relaxed, agenda, kick, background
1. Meet and greet ……..of the other company and introduce your colleagues.
2. Offer coffee and ……. talk.Try to create a …… atmosphere.
3. Go to the meeting room and suggest that you …… to business.
4. Havea clear … and a timetable.
5. First, give the ….. to the negotiations. Talking about the situation is a good way of reminding people of key facts and issues.
6. Then …. offthe negotiations themselves, perhaps by finding out more about the priorities of the side (the things they think are most important) or talking about your own requirements.
In English passive structures are used more often in formal and written language.
We use Passive:
a) when the person who carries out the action is unknown, unimportant or obvious from the context
e. g. You are ordered to report to General Hillard.
b) when the action itself is more important than the person who carries it out, as in news headlines, newspaper articles, formal notices, instructions, advertisements, processes, etc.
e.g. Water is evaporated carefully by the chemist.
When we change a sentence from Active to Passive:
- the object of the active sentence becomes the subject in the passive sentence.
- the active verb remains in the same tense, but changes into a passive form
We use by when we need to say who or what is responsible for the event. We make passive forms by putting the verb to be into the correct tense and adding the Past Participle of the main verb.
Sally seldom accompanies me to the dancing hall.
They always inviteGrandma.
Peoples of Indiaspeakdifferent languages.
I am seldom accompaniedto the dancing hall.
Grandma is always invited.
How many languages are spoken in India?
I am taking a taxi at the moment.
My aunt is doing the washing-up.
They are checking their exercises.
A taxi is being taken at the moment.
The washing-up is being doneby my aunt.
Their exercises are being checked.
My cousin has sent the invitation.
We have drunk two cups of tea today
The invitation has been sent by my cousin.
Two cups of tea have beendrunk today.
They invited Uncle Adrian.
Mr. Perkins typed the memos himself.
Uncle Adrian was invited.
Memoswere typedby Mr. Perkins personally.
The secretary was typingthe letter when the director entering the room.
Paparazzi were asking the questions when the politician left the airport.
The letter was being typedwhen the director entering the room.
The questions were being askedby paparazzi when the politician left the airport.
Our neighbourshad taken the twins to the zoo.
The twins had been taken to the zoo by our neighbours.
Terry will earn a lot of money.
She will wipe the tears soon.
A lot of money will be earnedby Terry.
The tears will be wiped soon.
I will have served the table by 7p.m.
They will have vaccinatedall children by the end of the year.
The table will have been servedby 7 p.m.
All children will have been vaccinated by the end of the year.
They might invite Kyle to the party.
We should tell Jenny about the party.
We must tell Dominic about the concert.
We can hold the party at Jack’s house.
Kyle might be invited to the party.
Jenny should be told about the party.
Dominic must be told about the concert.
The party can be held at Jack’s house.