2) How is the main idea of a scientific paper called?
3) What is the purpose of a scientific paper?
4) List the main sections of a paper?
5) How should one document the ideas of other writers?
Exercise 4. Look at the following statements about writing a scientific paper and fill in the table. Correct the false statements.
You ought to cite all the references you have read.
The reliability of sources is not important.
You must reply on more than one personís opinion.
You can write a research paper for an evening.
You must often show your outlines to your instructor.
A research paper is an effort to answer a question or a series of questions.
You may not bring any conclusions.
Exercise 5. Match the words with their definitions.
a) alphabetical description of a book
b) an idea expressed as a statement
c) a special design or arrangement
d)middle portion of writing containing examples, facts, illustrations
e) short piece of writing
f) a summary of conclusions
Exercise 6. Prepare a talk on writing a scientific paper. Use the information from the text in exercise 2 and the words and word combinations from exercise 1.
SPEAKING IN PUBLIC
Exercise 1. Make a list of the words and word combinations you do not know, translate and learn them.
Nouns: an audience, a terrifying experience, stage fright,range of knowledge, outline, notes, deliberate pauses, a puzzling idea, repetition,specification, internal summaries, the time allowedVerbs:influence people, communicate your ideas,take into consideration, keep the order of points, keep up contact, emphasize, neglect, think over in advanceAdjectives and Adverbs: beneficial, detrimental, previously, regularly, individually
Exercise 2. Read and translate the text.
SPEAKING IN PUBLIC
Speaking in public is a great way to influence people, communicate your ideas, sell your products and services and change the world. The first time somebody has to get on up and make a lecture in public can be aterrifying experience. Public speaking is a talent that anybody can learn, and stage fright is something that anybody can beat.
Feeling some nervousness before giving a speech is natural and even beneficial, but too much nervousness can be detrimental. Here are some tips on how to control your butterflies and give better presentations. Regardless of your topic you should take into consideration the audienceís background and the range of their knowledge in this particular field.
There are two ways of delivering your speech: talking and reading. If you decided on the first way, a previously prepared outline or notes on the cards will be good guides during your presentation. They will help you to keep the order of points and not forget something important. If you read the text, make the rhythm and pace of your talk closer to those of natural speech. To keep up contact with the audience donít forget to look up regularly.
Emphasize the most important points, changing the tone and rate of your speech and making deliberate pauses. This will help you to hold the attention of the audience. You ought to remember that your listeners donít have the opportunity to come back to what has been already said. They canít stop at a puzzling idea and think it over. For this reason, donít neglect repetition, specifications, internal summaries, etc.
If your speech exceeds the time allowed, donít be tempted to speed up your delivery. Think over in advance which parts of the text can be left out.
You are to talk to the audience as if you were talking to a group of your very good friends. Make your listeners feel that you are talking to each other individually.