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1. Reformulate the following sentences to avoid the first person.

1. We have used different methods to investigate the problem.

2. My research has shown that the aerospace industry is one of the key world economic areas.

3. In this report we look at Russia in the global context in order to draw out the unique facets of the market and set the scene for a longer-term strategic perspective.

4. We show property, plant and equipment at their historical value.

5. In accordance with Swiss law we treat dividends as an appropriation of profit in the year in which they are ratified at the annual General Meeting.

6. In this analysis we seek to pin down in as much detail as possible what the particular drivers are and what value lies in Norilsk as an investment proposition at current levels given the macro and company specific dynamics which have never been stronger.

7. When looking into actualities of the modern world, we should take into consideration socio-cultural, political, economic, religious, ethnic characteristics of the countries in question.

8. This research will enable us to objectively evaluate the current political and economic situation in the Arab world.


2. The use of the verbs make and do often causes difficulties. As a generalisation, we can say that make means to bring into existence (like making things in a production department) or to produce a result (e.g. make a profit, make changes) and do means to perform an action (e.g. to do an exercise, to do your homework).


goods an enquiry an application an offer a deal a request an excuse money a profit or loss an appointment arrangement or plans a complaint make an apology a decision a choice a forecast a mistake progress a phone call an effort an attempt certain/sure a business trip changes, or an improvement a contribution
Business a job some work good wrong the accounts your duty an experiment do research well, or better someone a favour damage/harm repairs something to, or for, or with someone something for a living


2. Complete the following sentences with the correct form of either make or do, and one of the words or expressions from the boxes above.

1. For too long, manufacturing companies have been content to _______ for the domestic market.

2. The huge fall in exports has ___ a great deal of ___ to the economy.

3. She is ________ on the French economy between the wars.

4. We ___ a lot of ___ in Japan, and since the profit margin is high, we ___ a lot of ___.

5. It is too early to _______ about demand.

6. Were you able to _______ to meet the area manager?

7. This study ____ an outstanding ___ to our understanding of the recent changes in the market.

8. Researchers need to ____ further ___ .

9. The restructuring was part of an _______ by the management to boost the company profits.

10. The leaflet will enable you to ___ an informed ___ about whether to buy this product.

11. The subcommittee ____ some nice ____ on the document.

12. Recently negotiators have ____ considerable ___ in the talks.

13. An alarming number of ____ have been ___ against the bank.

14. The company is ___ much ___ than last year.


3. Choose a phrase from the box to complete each sentence below. Several answers are possible each time, but one solution uses all the words in an appropriate way.


On the one hand …………. but on the other At first……………but in the end At the time……………….but in retrospect On paper …………………but in reality On the surface ………………..but deep down Under normal circumstances ………………….but in the current situation In the short term ………………………..but in the long term


1. ___________________the quality is good, _________________ the price is quite high.

2. ________________she was quite shy, _______________she knew what she wanted and was determined to get it.

3. _____________Hong Kong Disneyland looks like it should be a great success, _____________it will be a challenge to adapt the Disney formula to such a different culture.

4. ______________I found my MBA course very difficult, _____________I got used to the workload and started to really enjoy it.

5. _____________we need to establish our presence in the market and increase the visibility of the brand, _____________profitability will of course be the number 1 objective.

6. _______________I would agree with you, ______________ I just do not think we can afford to take any risks. Let’s put your suggestion on hold and discuss it again in six months.

7. ______________It was difficult to leave my job at 28 and invest time and money in an MBA, ____________it was the best career move I ever made.


4.Use the Paramedic Method (originally developed by Richard Lanham in Revising Prose) to edit any kind of professional writing. Editing your professional writing using the Paramedic Method will make your prose easier to read. Sentences that are easy to read are more persuasive and more user-centered.

The Paramedic Method

1 Circle the prepositions (of, in, about, for, onto, into)

2 Draw a box around the "is" verb forms

3 Ask, "Where's the action?"

4 Change the "action" into a simple verb

5 Move the doer into the subject (Who's kicking whom)

6 Eliminate any unnecessary slow wind-ups

7 Eliminate any redundancies.

Use the Paramedic Method in the sentences below to practice.

1 The point I wish to make is that the employees working at this company are in need of a much better manager of their money.

2 It is widely known that the engineers at Sandia Labs have become active participants in the Search and Rescue operations in most years.

3 After reviewing the results of your previous research, and in light of the relevant information found within the context of the study, there is ample evidence for making important, significant changes to our operating procedures.

Example Concise Solutions:

4 Employees at this company need a better money manager. (Original word count: 26. New word count: 10).

5 In recent years, engineers at Sandia Labs have participated in the Search and Rescue operations. (Original word count: 24. New word count: 16).

6 After reviewing the results of your research, and within the context of the study, we find evidence supporting significant changes in our operating procedures. (Original word count: 36. New word count: 25).


Other examples can be found in StyleWriter 4/4.1 (examples and improvement of your texts)


5. These exercises will help you to review more of the important words that we use to join ideas in a piece of writing.

A. Put the following words and expressions into their correct place in the table depending on their function.

to sum up briefly · it can be concluded that · also · similarly · likewise · besides · to conclude · too · in addition · in brief · in the same way · thus · what’s more · furthermore · moreover · along with · to summarize · as well as · therefore · correspondingly


B. Complete these sentences with one of the words or expressions from above. In most cases, more than one answer is possible.

1. Tourism brings much-needed money to developing countries. _________, it provides employment for the local population.

2. _______ bringing much-needed money to developing countries, tourism provides employment for the local population.

3. Tourists should respect the local environment. _______ they should respect the local customs.

4. _______ industrial waste, pollution from car fumes is poisoning the environment.

5. In order to travel, you need a passport. _______, you might need a visa, immunization jabs and written permission to visit certain areas.

6. Drugs are banned in Britain - _______ weapons such as guns and knives.

7. All power corrupts. _______, absolute power corrupts absolutely.

8. You shouldn’t smoke, drink, take drugs or eat unhealthy food. _______, you should live a more healthy lifestyle.

9. The ozone layer is becoming depleted, the air in the cities is becoming too dirty to breathe and our seas and rivers are no longer safe to swim in. _______ pollution is slowly destroying the planet.

10. Your grades have been very poor for the past two years. ________ you need to work really hard if you want to pass your exams next month.


Date: 2014-12-21; view: 2253

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