The purpose of the lectures: To teach students that the tourism industry raises our economy to justify on theoretical and practical approaches
Keywords: nature reserve, landscape,
1. Natural background
2. Socio - economic prerequisites for the development of tourism.
3. Structure services
Risk management (or risk management) determines the ways and means to ensure the sustainability of the enterprise industrii hospitality, its ability to withstand nebla-rable situations. All the hospitality industry zavisit not only the objective, but also subjective reasons. In the vast majority of enterprises industry-stepriimstva are legally independent entities hozyaystvuyuschimi, which means not only vozmozhnost to determine their financial and proizvodstvennuyu strategy, but also the absence of the state obligation to provide support in the event of an accident, strikes or other adverse manifestations.
Independence also means risk prekrascheniya production services or bankruptcy. Each gostinitsa or restaurant are required to take their own measures in sozdanii necessary reserves or raising finansirovaniya from other sources for the organization of activities for likvidatsii formed or approaching loss.
Risk management uses in hospitality three main positions:
- Responding to the possible negative consequences of accidents;
- Analysis of the consequences of accidents for the purpose of predotvrascheniya (prevent) in the risk situation;
- Development, implementation of measures to neutralize or kompensatsii likely consequences of the risks.
The content side of risk management in the hospitality contains sleduyuschie main stages:
- Preparatory, involving comparison of the characteristics and risk probabilities derived from its analysis and assessment;
- The choice of specific measures to help eliminate or minimizatsii possible negative consequences of risk.
One of the options to timely respond to the negative effects of tourism activities in riska situation became specially designed situational plan, which contains provisions that should make the person, realizing riskovye solutions in a given situation, and what the consequences sledu is expected. Thus, situational plans are a means umensheniya uncertainty and have a positive impact on the activities of operators in the market conditions.
By implementing risk management in tourism, paying particular attention to neobhodimo on the legal aspect of management, including various kinds of laws and regulations.
The effectiveness of risk management in tourism is largely dependent on the degree of management involvement in the risk management process. He mozhet be divided into 6 stages: defining objectives, identifying risks, risk assessment, selection of risk management techniques, the implementation of risk management, evaluation of the results.
Defining goals - is the realization of a prosperous tourist travel, protection of life, health, imuschestva tourist. For tourism organizations (tour operator, travel agent or the hotel manager, in the context of this paper) the main purpose is to ensure the survival of people and property in unforeseeable circumstances: Elements, disasters, fires, robberies.
Figuring out the risk expressed in awareness of the degree of risk turistom, tourist and excursion organizations, insurance companies and others. Awareness of risk, usually based on statisticheskuyu practices (how many cases occur in kolichestvo tours, which, for some types of risks were sluchai etc.).
Risk assessment - determination of the probability of an accident and the magnitude of potential damage.
Selection of risk management method developed practice menedzhmenta and defined the following objectives for its implementation: uprazdnenie; loss prevention and control; guaranteeing security; absorption.
The first task is to try to abolish risk. For turista it means to live according to the principle of "wise minnow" - not sleduet travel, fly planes, that is put out from the "mink". For the tourist firm, there are other restrictions: do not take the credit, not to play on the stock exchange, etc. The main drawback of this method lies in the fact that, together with the risk, as a rule, uprazdnyaetsya and part of the meaning of human life, and for the tourism firms - and even the possibility of obtaining income or profit.
The second task of the risk management - predotvraschenie losses and controls to protect themselves and tourist firms from accidents. This implies the need to regularly protivopozharnye measures to monitor their property during tourist trips, strictly follow the requirements of the insurance conditions, turistskoy minute.
Ensuring security from the perspective of management is the process of ensuring the safety of tourists in the period of their temporary stay outside the residence, and for tourist firms - prevention and elimination of negative consequences occurring cases.
And finally, the absorption is compensation for the tourist or tourist company property damage.
Evaluation of the results - is the analysis and assessment of this risk management process (its positive and negative sides, dohody and losses, plan for the future). And establish his credibility is an important function of risk management in the activity-ristskoy. Unequal assessment of the actual risk in human beings is marked by many studies. Probabilities of the same ones revalued events, others, on the contrary, nedootsenivayutsya. Naturally, the question arises: why?
It is possible to identify the main causes of unequal human perception of objectively existing risk exposure.
- Discrepancy between the objective value of the existing risk and its subjective perception (people tend pereotsenivayut danger of those events, which often reported in the media, and vice versa).
- Perception of risk depends on the data transfer methods (eg, the risk of danger from air crashes and avtomashin driving while intoxicated may be underestimated if only to report statistical data and reassessed if a specific cause, the most terrible cases).
- The perception of risk is significantly affected by the postponement of possible consequences (the life of smokers by about 6 years shorter than non-smokers, but underestimated by many and what 1,5mln people from diseases provoked by smoking die annually in the world - objectively existing danger of disease from smoking.) . The same can be said about the various kinds of diseases tourists venereal, infectious, tropical and other diseases in "exotic" countries.
- An incorrect assessment of the actual risk and results in the presence of false information and false information.
In connection with the risk management system should vklyuchat the following main elements:
- Identify differences in risk alternatives;
- Development of plans that allow optimal deystvovat in situations of risk;
- Specific recommendations aimed at eliminating or minimizing the possible negative consequences of accidents;
- Preparation for the adoption of laws and regulations;
- Recording and analysis of the psychological perception of risk resheny and programs.
Thus, we see that the risk management in tourist activity is a necessary set of principles, methods, means and forms of tourism management in order to improve its efficiency and increase profits. Taking all of the above analysis, it should be noted that, although management is a sine qua non of good governance of tourist activity, insurance, banking and other institutions and organizations, in general, it can not be equated with management activities only. It includes a broader set of measures for the study, analysis, planning, forecasting and development of the tourist market, it plays a key role in creating the atmosphere of a business partnership, collective responsibility for making important decisions and risks.
Having reviewed the historical and theoretical foundations of the issue of tourist safety, we turn to the analysis of the current state of this issue by examining the internationally accepted safety measures aimed at supporting the development of the tourism industry.
1. What is economics?2. Types of tourism?
3. Socio - economic preconditions of tourism development
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Topic 3. Classification of tourist risks. Types of risks and their causes