Topic 1. Safety concept in hospitality. Classification of tourism and management of risks
The purpose of the lectures: learn the basics of the theory of tourism
Keywords: Differentiated, recreation, excursion, holidaymakers, the tourist, recreational migration
1. Definition. Fundamentals of the theory of tourism.
2. Approaches to understanding the essence of tourism
3. Tourism and recreation
The rapid development of mass international tourism, its spread to virtually all parts of the globe all the sharper puts guarantee the security problem. According to experts, in recent years, a threat to their life, health and property has increased significantly. Tourism security problem is particularly acute in regions traditionally attractive for tourists (tropical and subtropical regions, the equatorial belt, national parks and other pristine natural areas), but at the same time representing for the unprepared person greatest danger. At the same time, around the globe there are areas that are potentially dangerous for tourists to other reasons - because of the low social level, where the tourists are at risk of being robbed or hijacked by terrorists.
Under the security tourist travel refers to the personal safety of tourists, the safety of their property, as well as the avoidance of damage to the environment while traveling.
The specifics of tourism is characterized by the unpredictability of possible negative outcome, "risky character." Under the tourism risk means expected event, in case of occurrence of which are made all the possible warning and eliminating the negative effects of the measures. The hospitality of the risk - this particular phenomenon or a set of them, the potential harm to the subject of tourist activity, its property and the environment.
By its nature, the risks can be divided into the following groups: objective, personal, environmental, transport, commercial, organizational and technical risks, and allocate group of specific risk factors.
Objective risk does not depend on the will and consciousness of the tourist, the risks should be attributed to this group, which is often impossible to predict.
For this type of risk include natural disasters - volcanic eruptions, storms, hurricanes, heavy rains and floods, earthquakes, outbreaks of infectious diseases, and others, which endanger the lives of tourists and make it impossible to continue the journey. There may also be civil unrest, acts of war, blockade, terrorist acts. This may also include the crime situation and crime, drug trafficking, prostitution, vandalism and other forms of violence, piracy. There may be, and economic catastrophe.
These circumstances are unpredictable, although the possibility of their occurrence takes place in certain areas. Some areas are established and announced in advance unfavorable periods for the journey (for example, periods of monsoon rains and storms, avalanches).
I would like to say a few words about one of the most dangerous and difficult to predict phenomena of our time - terrorism and extremism - which is becoming more and more diverse forms and rampant. Of course, in each country, the terrorist threat is assessed differently. In our country, the problem of terrorism is not acute. However, in Kazakhstan, which borders with the countries, already closely faced with terrorism, the problem of its prevention is a priority for law enforcement.
Sometimes tourists become victims of this form of organized crime, as the slave trade. It is becoming increasingly criminal character of illegal migration. The problem became inbound traffic, illegal migrant workers, which is difficult to defend the law.
Today in the world in the slave labor involved more than 12 million people. The annual income from this "business" is 30 billion dollars, 90 percent of the exploiters remain unpunished.
This phenomenon began to acquire its spread in our country. And in this connection it is necessary to take the most severe measures against the organizers of such criminal acts, otherwise the country could fall into the lists, where tour operators will not recommend to travel.
Solution of the problem of trafficking and exploitation can not be successful without the adoption of legislative measures. In this regard, during the last three years by the Ministry of Internal Affairs has been actively involved in the drafting of legislation on the fight against illegal exit and illegal migration of citizens of Kazakhstan with a view to their subsequent labor, sexual and other exploitation. One of them - the Law of Kazakhstan "On amendments to the Criminal Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan", which extends the scope of the perpetrators not only recruitment, but also the export and transit of persons for exploitation.
Also, on the initiative of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in 2001, the law "On tourism activities in the Republic of Kazakhstan" made to complement the Prohibition of tourism activities in order to organize illegal citizens of Kazakhstan departure for permanent residence abroad or employment abroad, as well as the import of foreign labor .
According to the World Health Organization, the epidemiological situation in the world in terms of especially dangerous infections remains tense. In the world of the incidence of plague, contagious viral haemorrhagic fever recorded each year, continues VII cholera pandemic, celebrated mass diseases malaria and tropical helminthiases. Keep active natural foci of plague in 14 countries of the Asian, African and South American continents and yellow fever in 43 countries in Africa and South America. Endemic areas where cholera outbreaks are recorded, are shown in 63 countries of Asia, Africa, South America, malaria - in 94 countries.
Since the end of 2002 have been reported outbreaks of previously unknown severe acute respiratory disease (SARS / "SARS") in China, which then spread to the countries of South-East Asia (Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, etc.), Account is imported into Canada and USA. Over the period 2002-2003. SARS outbreak, the cases of the introduction and spread of the infection have been reported in 23 countries.
A serious threat to the tourism sector can be further spread of avian influenza has been observed for several years in the world.
WHO is working with the WTO agreements, in accordance with which the actual information about the formalities associated with the passage of sanitary control, published in the annual publication of the WTO, "Foreign tourism - border formalities." In particular, the list of countries to travel to that necessary vaccinations, confirmed by a certificate established by the international standard published there. Health rules for avoiding infectious diseases when traveling should be required to be communicated to the customers before the trip.
It is extremely common as food poisoning. All tourists are strongly recommended to consume food outside catering, unprocessed and uncooked foods and vegetables bought at the local markets, and especially the food stalls in the street retail sales.
Hazards include insect bites, dangerous animals, reptiles. It is important to know when visiting areas outside settlements, jungles, forests, at a safari company. In hot countries can not swim in fresh water, on the beaches, you can get a dangerous infection, bite or burn from a marine organism.
Also in this category and include HIV infection and AIDS.
Personal risk - a threat to the personal safety and security of tourists of the property.
Tourists often attacked by robbers and become victims of scams, handheld and street thieves and hooligans. In countries with high social tension increases the risk of robbery.
Of course, for every tourist guard fasten impossible, but reliable warning of the danger, appropriate recommendations on the behavior in public places, transport, on the storage of passports, cash and valuables, available insurance, the course of action in the case happened the circumstances, to avoid a lot of trouble.
Do not forget about the normal rules of behavior excluding ingress tourist into trouble. Tourists behind inadvertently by groups on trips and participate in high-risk flights to paromotorah basking under increased sea state, are sent to areas not recommended for tourists or without proper support, visit questionable entertainment.
Environmental risks associated with environmental pollution, recreation zones. Growing every year tourist migration, as well as an extensive tourism infrastructure pose a threat to the environment, the same as the one that caused the urbanization, the development of industry and transport. Sometimes it is necessary to speak about the devastating impact of tourism on the environment. Unregulated tourism, poor planning, management and operation of tourist companies exacerbate the negative impact of mass tourism.
In a separate group should be allocated transport risks, as transport is one of the most dangerous stages of travel, despite the fact that security issues here are some of the key. Danger are terrorist groups and singles, criminals, smugglers, or just unbalanced people. In much of the cases the causes of disasters are man-made or natural character.
Particular attention is paid to the safety of navigation. Annual statistics of shipwrecks and deaths of passengers is quite impressive.
The bus is also not the safest form of travel for long distances due to peculiarities of movement - the vehicle is traveling on the roads of their own and is in the most part of the way without protection, especially outside the settlements. As tourists usually bring with them money and things, robbery coaches it has become commonplace, and commercial tours is very risky. The most common cases are theft from passengers' luggage at the luggage compartments of buses loading or unloading, the parking lot. In some countries, tourist centers and the practice of obligatory support coaches armed guard.
Extremely relevant is the problem of air safety, and it all without exception, air carriers are paying a lot of attention. In general, air transport is considered more secure than all other types of traffic. Accidents and disasters happen, but much less frequently than with other vehicles. Any extreme incident in flight in the air is undesirable because it can have irreversible consequences. Therefore, the main and basic preventive measures are carried out ground services.
Rail transport is the least dangerous in terms of man-made disasters and threats of terrorist attacks.
Motorists are often victims of road criminals who rob and most tourist and stolen vehicles.
Each mode of transport has its own rules of carriage of passengers, an institute of insurance of passengers and luggage. Adoption of the International Convention on the air, sea, road and rail transport in which safety rules are central. All air and sea vessels are equipped with a sufficient number of life-saving appliances, set requirements for their construction and equipment, fire protection. Passengers are written specific instructions for behavior in case of capture terrorists bus.
Problems arise organizational plan for wine tourists and no less often the fault of the tourist companies and enterprises of tourist industry. Tourists going on a journey, forget documents, tickets, insurance, often late in sending the item is lost during the excursions are becoming victims of fraud by its negligence. Problems in the tourism organizers are also observed with the same frequency and mainly related to the negligence of staff or lack of his qualifications. The most common - replacing accommodation facilities, food plan, a violation of the program in terms of tours, the schedule of transfers and transportation that always brings a negative impression about the trip.
Commercial risks are usually associated with the financial problems of tourism organizers, bankruptcy or ordinary fraud.
Another group consists of specific risks. Naprimer, bad weather in a place of temporary residence, nesvoevremenny departure, inability implementation of licenses to shoot animals or fish nelovli, improper equipment room air-conditioning facilities, heating, deodorization, automatic control and alarm.
For safe travel of the need to ensure the necessary conditions and prerequisites for the reduction of tourism risk to the life, health and property of tourists, especially foreign travel. Having considered the possible risks in the tourism industry need to be addressed and managed.
A characteristic feature of the risks in tourism is their brevity and unpredictability of the extent of damage. Targeted actions to limit the risk are known as risk management or risk management. In other words, a set of risk management practices of tourism activities in order to improve its efficiency and increase profits. The concept arose in connection with the advent of such spetsialista management, whose main responsibility in the face of uncertainty - not to avoid risk, and in anticipation of it, to reduce to a minimum or even to exclude the possible negative consequences.
1. What is "tourism"?
2. Types of tourism?
3. List the services of public administration
4. What is a "tourism"?
5. Types of tourism?
6. List service governance
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