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READING DRILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

namely, market, complicate, quickly, favourable, natural, term, structure, structural, balance, payment, gradual, solve, period, legislative, regulate, basis, cost, trade, budget, practice, change, price, energy, food, communal, service;

b) stress the second syllable:

assertion, prerequisite, accomplishment, considerable, potential, develop, explain, condition, convenient, position, exchange, reform, attainment, account, create, creation, attraction, investment, succeed, conduct, taxation, essentially;

c) stress the third syllable:

transformation, proclamation, integration, independence, international, geographical, correspond;

d) stress the fourth syllable:

interrelate, characteristic.

Text B

Two interrelated processes are characteristic of Ukraines economy today, namely its assertion1as that of an independent state, and its transformation from planned-centralized to market-controlled. These processes are rather complicated, but there are all prerequisites2for their effective accomplishment.

Present-day independent Ukraine has a considerable potential to quickly develop its economy and this is explained not only by the favourable natural conditions, but also by the convenient geographical position in terms of3international trade exchanges.

Reforms, started in the national economy after the proclamation of independence, are aimed at the establishment of an open, effective market type economy.

The main directions of the programme of economic reforms are as follows:

1. The programme of structural reorganization.

2. Attainment of balanced payments account.

3. Creation of conditions for gradual integration of Ukraine with the world economy.

These and other problems must be solved at the cost of a wide attraction of foreign investments. In a short period of time the Verkhovna Rada and government of Ukraine have succeeded in creation a legislative and regulating basis for conducting economic reforms. Taxation and budget systems4corresponding in their structure to the world practice are created essentially anew. The change over to a free price formation in the economy is carried out. The government regulation of price level is applied only in establishing prices for main energy carriers, some most important food, communal and transportation services.

Much attention is given to the change of the structure of property. Legislative basis is created for privatization of state-owned enterprises5, implementation of reforms of the banking and financial systems.

COMMENTS

1. assertion

2. prerequisite

3. in terms of

4. taxation and budget systems

5. state-owned enterprises i i

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I.Give the verbs from which the following nouns are derived:

assertion, proclamation, regulation, creation, direction, reorganization, attraction, implementation, formation, transportation, taxation, independence, integration, government, accomplishment, investment, development, payment.



II. Give the Ukrainian equivalents for the following words and word-combinations. Use them in the sentences of your own:

national economy; international trade; world economy; in a short period of time; structural reorganization; attraction of foreign investments; effective market type economy; to succeed in; banking and financial systems; to conduct economic reforms; taxation and budget systems; to establish prices; legislative and regulating basis; state-owned enterprises.

III. Match the synonyms:

suitable, energy carriers, complicated, property, present-day, complex, to fix prices, convenient, to implement, nationalized, power carriers, state-owned, declaration, sovereign, accomplishment, ownership, proclamation, to establish prices, contemporary, independent, achievement, to carry out.

IV. Fill in the blanks below with the most appropriate terms from the list:

programme of economic reforms; prerequisites; assertion; banking and financial systems; taxation; market-controlled; independent sovereign state; privatization.

1. Ukraine is recognized by the world community as an ___________ . 2. The process of Ukraines ______________ as an independent state is very complicated. 3. Ukraine has all ________ for the development of its economy. 4. The government of Ukraine sees the way out of the crisis in realization of the __________ . 5. Reforms are aimed at the transformation of Ukraines economy from planned-centralized to __________ . 6. The implementation of reforms of the ____________ are of a high priority. 7. ____________ and budget systems corresponding in their structure to the world practice are created essentially anew. 8. Legislative basis is created for _________ of state-owned enterprises.

V.Complete the following sentences:

1. Two interrelated processes are characteristic of Ukraines economy today, namely ... . 2. Present-day independent Ukraine has ... . 3. Reforms, started in the national economy after the proclamation of independence, are aimed ... . 4. The main directions of the programme of economic reforms are as follows: ... . 5. These and other problems must be solved ... . 6. In a short period of time the Verkhovna Rada and government of Ukraine have succeeded in ... . 7. Much attention is given to ... . 8. Legislative basis is created ... .

VI. Answer the following questions:

1. What processes are characteristic of Ukraines economy today? 2. These processes are rather complicated, arent they? 3. What potential does Ukraine have to develop its economy? 4. What are the main directions of the programme of economic reforms? 5. What is the role of the Verkhovna Rada and government in conducting economic reforms? 6. What problems is much attention given to?

VII. Translate into English:

1. i i. 2. , i i i i, i i . 3. i i ii i . 4. i i i . 5. i i, i , i ii . 6. i i i.

READING DRILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

industry, area, current, structure, occupy, heavy, steel, coal, light, job, service, health, care, concentrate, region, mineral, bias, output, yield, mining, ferrous, presently, automobile, locomotive, railway, airplane, lack, harvester, satisfy, integrate, process, standard, innovate, market;

b) stress the second syllable:

proportion, industrial, towards, account, employ, metallurgy, equipment, considerable, deposit, produce, however, accept, progressive, unable, consumer, unwillingness, initiative, techniques, approach.

2. Name the word-building elements (suffixes, prefixes) and the part of speech of each word:

economy economic economical economically economics economist economize; industry industrial industrialist industrially industrious industrialization; satisfy satisfactory satisfaction.

Text C

Industry is the most important area of Ukraines economy. In the current structure of Ukraines industry a great proportion is occupied by heavy industry, especially the steel, machine-building and coal industries.
A considerable part is played by the food and light industries. About two-fifth of Ukraines people work in industry, and about a fifth work in agriculture. Most other Ukrainians have jobs in such service industries as education and health care.

Many of Ukraines heavy industries are concentrated in the Donbas region, the centre of Ukraines heavy industry. It has rich mineral deposits and major industrial base with bias towards1heavy industry. A large industrial output2is yielded3by the mining, ferrous metallurgy4, chemical and machine-building industries.

The machine-building is presently the largest branch of industry. It accounts for a third of the national industrial output and employs about a fourth of Ukraines workers. Automobiles and buses, locomotives and railway cars, airplanes and ships, tractors and harvesters5, machine tools6and metallurgical equipment are produced at Ukraines plants and factories.

However, todays industries are unable to satisfy the consumers wants7. The reason is that they are not integrated into the world process of economic, technological and scientific progress. The national industries have low standard in processing raw materials8, outdated and worn-out production equipment9, unwillingness to accept progressive techniques and approaches and lack of innovating initiative. These and other problems must be solved in the course of new economic reforms aimed at creating a market economy.

COMMENTS

1. with bias towards :

2. output ; i

3. ... is yielded ...

4. ferrous metallurgy i

5. harvester ;

6. machine tools

7. to satisfy the consumers wants i

8. raw material

9. outdated and worn-out production equipment i

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I.Find equivalents:

1. heavy industry 2. ferrous metallurgy 3. enterprise 4. with bias towards 5. outdated equipment 6. raw materials 7. light industry 8. machine-building industry 9. coal industry 10. to satisfy the consumers wants . 11. branch of industry 12. industrial output . i . . i . i i . i . i i . i . i . i . . i . i

II. Substitute the words in bold type by their synonyms:

1. Industry is the most significant area of Ukraines economy. 2. In the current structure of Ukraines industry a great part is occupied by heavy industry. 3. Nearly two-fifth of Ukraines people work in industry. 4. Many of Ukraines heavy industries are centred in the Donbas region. 5. It has rich mineral deposits and major industrial base in favour of heavy industry. 6. Todays industries cannot meet the consumers wants. 7. A large industrial output is produced by machine-building industry.

III. Complete the following sentences:

1. In the current structure of Ukraines industry a great proportion is occupied ... . 2. A considerable part is played ... . 3. The machine-building industry accounts ... . 4. Ukraines plants and factories produce ... . 5. Todays industries are unable ... .

IV. Say whether these statements are true or false and if they are false say why:

1. Ukraine has a developed economy with strong industry.

2. Machine-building is presently the largest branch of industry.

3. Ukraine is very rich in mineral resources.

4. The Donbas is one of the main food suppliers for the country.

5. Todays industries are able to satisfy the consumers wants.

V. Match each term in Column A with its definition in Column B:

Column A Column B

1. industry a. That which is produced or manufactured, usually in a specified period of time.
2. consumer b. The application of science to commerce and industry.
3. service industries c. Anything legally owned or possessed by a person or organization.
4. technology d. The sector of an economy that is concerned with manufacture.
5. output e. Businesses which provide services, such as health care, legal advice or appliance repair.
6. market economy f. An economic system in which national economic decisions are the result of decisions by individual buyers and sellers in the marketplace.
7. property g. Anyone who uses goods and/or services.

VI. Answer the following questions:

1. Is industry the most important area in Ukraines economy? 2. What are the main industries in Ukraine? 3. Where are many of Ukraines heavy industries concentrated? 4. What is the Donbas rich in? 5. What industries is a large industrial output yielded by? 6. The machine-building is presently the largest branch of industry, isnt it? 7. What do Ukraines plants and factories produce? 8. What is the reason that todays industries are unable to satisfy the consumers wants? 9. What are new economic reforms aimed at?

VII. Translate into English:

1. i i i . 2. 2/5 i. 3. i i. 4. i i. 5. o i i. 6. i ii , i i, , i i. 7. i i, i i i, i -i .

VIII. Match each branch of industry with its production:

1. machine-building 2. instrument-making 3. ship-building 4. motor vehicle 5. farm machinery 6. food 7. light 8. chemical 9. building materials tractors plant equipment transport vehicles combine harvestors electron microscopes passenger vehicles sowing machines passenger cars canned fruit excavators detergents generators cine-cameras vegetable oils seagoing vessels pharmaceuticals footwear turbines wool sugar pottery wine plastics sandstone garment cement cheese linen butter limestone cotton silk china fertilizers

IX. Give the characteristic of Ukraines industry using the following words and word-combinations:

heavy industry; steel, food and light industries; service industry; mineral deposits; machine-building and coal industries; major industrial base; with bias towards; national industrial output; ferrous metallurgy; to satisfy the consumers wants; raw material; to yield; the world process of economic, technological and scientific progress; progressive techniques and approaches; economic reforms; outdated and worn-out production equipment; market economy.

READING DRILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

fertile, soil, temperately, climate, farming, breadbasket, animal, practice, crop, growing, harvesting, grain, meadow, fruit, vegetable, raising, cereal, flax, rye, oat, barley, sugar beet, sunflower, cabbage, cucumber, carrot, onion, garlic, melon, wheat, maize, legume, husbandry, widespread, dairy, province, chicken, duck, goose, turkey, cattle, poultry, mechanize, wages, profit, agriculture;

b) stress the second syllable:

productive, collective, intensive, potato, tomato, control, increase, apply, include, industrial, technology.

Text D

Ukraine has very favourable conditions for the development of agricultural production: fertile soils, temperately warm climate, a well- developed industry processing agricultural raw materials. Ukraine is one of the worlds most productive farming regions and is known as the breadbasket of Europe.

There are two main branches of agricultural production in Ukraine: crop production1and animal husbandry2. Crop production is the practice of growing and harvesting crops. It includes: grain and industrial crops3, meadow culture, fruit and vegetable raising. Almost half of the cropping area is occupied by cereals4such as winter wheat, maize and legumes, rye, oats and barley. Among the industrial crops such as sugar beet, sunflower, flax the leading position is occupied by sugar beet. Close to 40 types of vegetable crops are grown in Ukraine: potatoes, cabbage, tomatoes, cucumbers, red beets, carrots, onions, garlic, etc. Melon-growing is practised mainly in the south.

Animal husbandry is the practice of breeding of farm animals and their use. The most widespread branches of animal husbandry are: dairy and beef cattle breeding5, pig raising6, sheep farming7and bee-keeping8. The poultry industry9is spread through all the provinces. Birds farmed include chicken, duck, goose, turkey. There are large mechanized poultry farms to produce eggs and meat.

Most farms in Ukraine are owned and controlled by the government. They include state farms10and collective farms11. State farms are managed entirely by the government, which pays wages to farmworkers. Collective farms are owned and managed in part by the workers, who receive wages as well as a share in the farms profits. State farms are larger and have more mechanical farm equipment than collective farms. In order to increase crop yields and animal products collective and state farms apply widely intensive technologies.

 

COMMENTS

1. crop production

2. animal husbandry

3. grain and industrial crops i

4. cereals ii

5. dairy and beef cattle breeding

6. pig raising

7. sheep farming i

8. bee-keeping i

9. poultry industry i

10. state farms

11. collective farms

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. Define the parts of speech of the following words:

favourable, production, agricultural, temperately, productive, vegetable, warm, mainly, cultivate, equipment, widely, collective, entirely, receive, almost.

II. Give the Ukrainian equivalents for the following words and word-combinations. Use them in the sentences of your own:

favourable conditions; agricultural production; fertile soils; agricultural raw material; crop production; animal husbandry; grain crops; industrial crops; temperately warm climate; dairy and beef cattle breeding; poultry industry; state and collective farms.

III.Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary:

1. Ukraine has very favourable conditions ... the development ... agricultural production. 2. Almost half ... the cropping area is occupied ... cereals. 3. Among the industrial crops the leading position is occupied ... sugar beet. 4. Melon-growing is practised mainly ... the south. 5. The poultry industry is spread ... all the provinces. 6. Most ... farms ... Ukraine are owned and controlled ... the government.

IV.Translate the sentences paying attention to the italicized words :

1. Most of the farms in our region are animal breeding farms. 2. There are some plants that are used only in medicine. 3. Intensification of agricultural production is the most important problem now. 4. In our country there are some plants producing chemical fertilizers. 5. Our farm plants some of the crops in autumn. 6. Many people go to the country in summer. 7. That bird has a large crop. 8. Grain crops are widely grown by farmers. 9. Animal husbandry is more important on this farm than crop production.

V. Memorize the meanings of the word agriculture and its derivatives. Translate the sentences paying attention to the italicized words :

agriculture i ; ; ai;

agricultural ci; ;

agriculturist ; i i; .

1. This farm has different agricultural machines. 2. Cooperation with other countries is favourable to agriculture of Ukraine. 3. The agriculturist of today wants to have better and higher-yielding crops which can produce more food of good quality.

VI. Complete the following sentences:

1. Ukraine has very favourable conditions ... . 2. There are two main branches of agricultural production in Ukraine ... . 3. Crop production is ... 4. It includes ... . 5. Almost half of the cropping area is occupied by cereals such as ... . 6. Close to 40 types of vegetable crops are grown in Ukraine: ... . 7. Animal husbandry is ... . 8. Birds farmed include ... . 9. In order to increase crop yields and animal products collective and state farms apply ... .

VII.Answer the following questions:

1. Does Ukraine have favourable conditions for the development of agri-cultural production? 2. What are the main branches of agricultural production in Ukraine? 3. What is crop production? 4. What does crop production include? 5. What cereals occupy half of the cropping area? 6. What vegetable crops are grown in Ukraine? 7. What is animal husbandry? 8. What are the most wide-spread branches of animal husbandry? 9. Where is the poultry industry spread? 10. What birds are farmed in Ukraine? 11. What forms of farm enterprises do you know? 12. What is the difference between state and collective farms?

VIII.Translate into English:

1. i i . 2. i i i i i: . 3. i . 4. i , i, i i. 5. i i ii . 6. i i i . 7. i .8. , , i, i i ii i i. 9. ii i i i .

COMMUNICATIVE SITUATIONS

1. Speak about the tasks facing Ukraines people in the building-up the economy.

2. You discuss the problems to be solved in the course of new economic reforms.

3. Make a report in your class: Industry the most important area in Ukraines economy.

4. You have an exam. Your question is: Ukraine as an industrial country.

5. You are at the conference. The theme of your report is: The development of agricultural production in Ukraine.

 

 


Date: 2015-01-11; view: 699


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