Great Britain is a highly-developed naval and industrial power. Its economy was primarily based on private enterprises. However, some industries were nationalized after World War II. Now it has a mixed private- and public-enterprise economy1. The government controls the coal-mining and electric power industries, ferrous metallurgy and shipbuilding. Part of public transport, civil aviation and national bank are also managed by the state.
The main sectors of British economy are manufacturing, services and agriculture. The share of industry in GNP2is 11 times more than that of agriculture. Manufacturing plays a vital role in British economy. It accounts for 1/5 of the GNP and employs less than 1/3 of the workforce3. Small companies predominate, though companies with 500 or more employees employ a larger percentage of the workforce.
The rise of Great Britain as an industrial nation4was partly due to5 the presence of considerable mineral resources, the most important of them being coal and iron. Next to coal and iron the chief minerals found on the British Isles are the building stone, marble, granite, slate, lead, tin, copper, zink, salt and china clay. But in the course of the last hundred years many of Britain’s most valuable and accessible deposits have been worked out.
Coal-mining, metallurgy, textile, shipbuilding are the older branches of industry. The new industries are the chemical, electrotechnical, automobile, aeromissile and electronics. The new industries have developed hand in hand6with science and technology and are equipped to meet present technical demands.
Big cities and towns such as London, Glasgow, Manchester, Liverpool, Newcastle, Sheffield and Birmingham have enterprises of nearly all branches of industry. The main centres of cotton and woolen industry are Leeds, Bradford and Manchester.
1. mixed private- and public-enterprise economy — змiшана економiка,
що ґрунтується на приватному та державному пiдприємництвi
2. GNP — ВНП (валовий нацiональний продукт)
3. workforce — робоча сила
4. industrial nation — промислова держава
5. due to — зумовленo
6. hand in hand — плiч-о-плiч
I. Find equivalents:
1. coal-mining a. змiшана економiка
2. GNP б. авiаракетна промисловiсть
3. hand in hand в. приватне пiдприємство
4. industrial nation г. енергетична промисловiсть
5. private enterprise д. суднобудування
6. power industry е. промислова держава
7. public transport є. плiч-о-плiч
8. workforce ж.чорна металургія
9. shipbuilding з. громадський транспорт
10. mixed economy и. ВНП (валовий нацiональний продукт)
11. cotton industry і. робоча сила
12. aeromissile industry ї. бавовництво
13. ferrous metallurgy й. вугледобувна промисловiсть
II. Give the corresponding nouns to the following verbs:
a) to control, to transport, to service, to share, to work, to force, to rise, to head, to power, to base, to state, to centre, to demand, to mix;
b) to assossiate, to govern, to produce, to manufacture, to predominate, to account, to equip, to employ, to develop, to nationalize, to know.
III. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary:
1. British economy was primarily based ... private enterprises. 2. Some ... industries were nationalized ... World War II. 3. Part ... public transport, power industry and most ... civil aviation are managed ... the state. 4. The rise ... Britain as an industrial nation was partly due ... the presence ... considerable mineral resources. 5. Manufacturing plays a vital role ... British economy. 6. The new industries have developed hand ... hand ... science and technology.
IV. Fill in the blanks below with the most appropriate terms
1. Great Britain is a highly-developed naval and __________ . 2. British economy was primarily based on _______ . 3. Great Britain has a mixed private and ________ . 4. The main sectors of British economy are _______ , services and ________ . 5. The share of industry in _______ is 11 times more than that of agriculture. 6. The main centres of cotton and ________ are Leeds, Bradford and Manchester.
V. Ask someone
if Great Britain is a highly developed naval and industrial power; its economy was primarily based on private enterprises; now Great Britan has a mixed private- and public-enterprise economy; in the course of the last hundred years many of Britain’s most valuable and accessible deposits have been worked out;
when some industries were nationalized;
what industries the government controls; the main sectors of British economy are; the share of industry in GNP is; role manufacturing plays in British economy; the rise of Britain as an industrial country was due to; the chief minerals found on the British Isles are; the older branches of industry are; the new industries are; cities and towns have enterprises of nearly all branches of industry; the main centres of cotton and woolen industry are.
VI. Translate into English:
1. Великобританiя є дуже розвинутою морською iндустрiальною державою. 2. Вона має змiшану економiку, що ґрунтується на приватному та державному пiдприємництві. 3. Держава контролює вугледобувну та електроенергетичну галузі, чорну металургiю та суднобудування. 4. Промисловiсть, послуги та сiльське господарство є головними секторами британської економiки. 5. Розквіт Великобританiї як iндустрiальної держави зумовлювався наявнiстю значної кiлькостi мiнеральних ресурсiв. 6. Вугледобувна, металургiйна, текстильна та суднобудiвна — це найстарiші галузі промисловостi. 7. Новими галузями промисловостi є хiмiчна, електротехнiчна, автомобiльна та авiаракетна. 8. Лондон, Глазго, Манчестер, Лiверпуль, Шеффiлд та Бiрмiнгем є основними промисловими центрами Великобританiї.
VII. Give the characteristic of British economy using
the following words and word-combinations:
highly-developed naval and industrial power; mixed private- and public-enterprise economy; coal-mining and electric power industries; ship-building; ferrous metallurgy; private enterprise; public transport; civil aviation; national bank; manufacturing; services; agriculture; vital role; to account for; workforce; GNP; due to; considerable mineral resources; new industries; electrotechnical, automobile, aeromissile industries; hand-in-hand; science and technology; to meet present technical demands.
1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:
Services play an important role in British economy and make up1an increasing proportion of the national income2. They account for about 60 per cent of gross domestic product and 68 per cent of employees. This sector includes health, education, retail and wholesale trade3, tourism, financial and business services, insurance4, transport, etc.
Banking, finance, insurance, business services and leasing account for 14 per cent of the British economy’s total output. London has the world’s largest insurance market, and its banks are responsible for5about a fifth of the international bank lending. London is the world’s principal trading centre for commodities, as well as an increasingly important centre for financial futures markets.
Britain’s banking system comprises the Bank of England, the commercial banks, branches of foreign and Commonwealth banks6and building societies7. The Bank of England acts as the government’s bank. It helps to implement the government’s financial and monetary policy and supervises the banking system as a whole. Commercial banks provide financial services to individuals and companies, particularly account and loan facilities. Building societies accept deposits8and arrange mortgages9for house purchase. They also offer home loans and a wide range of banking and insurance services.
Britain has an open economy, in which international trade plays a vital role. About one-quarter of its gross domestic product comes from the export of goods and services. It is the fifth largest trading nation in the world. Since 1973 Britain has been a member of the European Economic Community, an association of 12 democratic states. About half Britain’s trade is with its European Community partners. Britain’s main exports are automobiles, textile, machinery, aircraft, electronic equipment and many others.
1. to make up — складати
2. national income — нацiональний дохід
3. retail and wholesale trade — роздрiбна та оптова торгiвля
4. insurance — страхування
5. to be responsible for — вiдповiдати за, бути вiдповiдальним за
6. Commonwealth banks — банки Спiвдружностi
7. building societies — житлово-будiвельнi товариства
8. to accept deposites — приймати вклади
9. mortgage — застава
I. Name the word-building elements (suffixes, prefixes) and
важлива роль; внутрiшнiй валовий продукт; охорона здоров’я; освiта; нацiональний дохід; роздрiбна та оптова торгiвля; послуги у сферi фiнансiв та бiзнесу; бути вiдповiдальним за щось; мiжнародний банкiвський кредит; страхування; ф’ючерсний ринок; банкiвська система; банки Спiвдружностi; Європейське Економiчне Співтовариство; мiжнародна торгiвля; комерцiйнi банки; експорт товарiв та послуг; житлово-будiвельнi товариства; машинне устаткування; приймати вклади; текстильнi вироби; електронна апаратура.
III.Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary:
1. Services play an important role ... British economy and make up an increasing proportion ... the national income. 2. They account ... about 60 per cent ... gross domestic product. 3. London is the world’s principal trading centre ... commodities, as well as an increasingly important centre ... financial futures markets. 4. Commercial banks provide financial services ... individuals and companies. 5. Building societies accept deposits and arrange mortgages ... house purchase. 6. About one-quarter ... its gross domestic product comes ... the export ... goods and services. 7. Great Britain is the fifth largest trading nation ... the world. 8. ... 1973 it has been a member ... the European Economic Community.
IV.Complete the following sentences:
1. Services account for ... . 2. This sector includes ... . 3. Banking, finance, insurance, business services and leasing account for ... . 4. London has the world’s largest insurance market, and its banks are responsible for ... . 5. Commercial banks provide ... . 6. Britain’s banking system comprises ... . 7. Since 1973 Britain has been ... . 8. Britain’s main exports are ... .
V. Match each term in Column A with its definition in Column B:
a. The activity of selling goods and services in order to make a profit.
2. national income
b. A financial institution that accepts demand deposits and makes commercial loans.
3. gross domestic product
c. An economy in which a significant percentage of its goods and services are traded internationally.
d. The total annual money value of the goods and services produced by a country.
e. A financial institution that accepts deposits and arrange mortgages for house purchase.
6. building society
f. The monetary value of all the goods and services produced by an economy over a specified period.
7. open economy
g. Intangible commodity.
h. Goods and services sold to foreign countries.
VI. Answer the following questions:
1. What is the role of services in British economy? 2. What services does this sector include? 3. What does Britain’s banking system comprise? 4.What do you know about the Bank of England? 5. What kind of services do commercial banks provide? 6. What do building societies offer to their customers? 7. What can you say about international trade of Great Britain? 8. What are the main Britain’s exports?
VII. Translate into English:
1. Послуги вiдiграють важливу роль в економiцi Великобританiї i становлять бiльшу частину нацiонального доходу. 2. Цей сектор включає послуги у сферi охорони здоров’я, освiти, роздрiбної та оптової торгiвлi, туризму, фiнансiв та бiзнесу, страхування, транспорту та iн. 3. Послуги у сферi банкiвської справи, фiнансiв, страхування, бiзнесу та лiзингу становлять 14% загального обсягу виробництва. 4. Банкiвська система Великобританiї включає Банк Англiї, вiддiли зарубiжних банкiв та Спiвдружностi й житлово-будiвельнi товариства. 5. Банк Англiї дiє як урядовий банк. Вiн допомагає здiйснювати фiнансову та грошову полiтику уряду i здiйснює нагляд за дiяльнiстю банкiвської системи в цiлому. 6. Мiжнародна торгiвля вiдiграє суттєву роль в економiцi Великобританiї. 7. З 1973 року Великобританія є членом Європейського Економiчного Співтовариства. 8. Великобританiя експортує автомобiлi, текстильнi вироби, машинне устаткування, лiтаки, електронну апаратуру та iн.
1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:
Agriculture is one of the most important sectors in British economy. It supplies nearly 2/3 of the country’s food and directly employs about 2.5 per cent of the working population. However its share1of the gross domestic product2is less than 3 per cent — the lowest figure among the developed countries.
Great Britain is self-sufficient3in milk, eggs, to a very great extent4in meat, potatoes and wheat. However it has to import butter, cheese, sugar, tea, fruit and some other agricultural products.
There are more than 250 thousand farms in Great Britan. Most of them are small family farms, where all the work is done by the farmer and his family. The tendency in agricultural development of the country is the disappearance5of small traditional farms as they cannot compete6with big industrial farms.
The types of farms are different in different regions of the country. In the East most farmers grow such crops as barley, wheat, sugar beets and potatoes. In the West climate is good for the production of farm animals. The greater part of the land here is used for dairy and beef cattle breeding, and sheep farming. There are a lot of farms where farmers grow some crops and breed some farm animals. These farms are known as mixed farms.
British agriculture is efficient for it is based on modern technology and research. The work in agricultural sector is highly mechanized. Computers and different agricultural machines are used by the farmers in Great Britain.
1. share — частка
2. gross domestic product — внутрішній валовий продукт
3. ... is self-sufficient — сама себе забезпечує; незалежна; економiчно самостiйна
4. to a great extent — значною мiрою
5. disappearance — зникнення
6. to compete — конкурувати
I. Give the verbs from which the following nouns are derived:
II. Give the Ukrainian equivalents for the following words and
word-combinations. Use them in the sentences of your own:
one of the most important sectors; developed countries; small family farms; agricultural products; to be self-sufficient; to compete; share of the gross domestic product; to a very great extent; agricultural development; agricultural sector; farm animals; dairy and beef cattle breeding; highly mechanized; sheep farming; disappearance; mixed farms; modern technology and research.
III. Fill in the blanks below with the most appropriate terms
from the list:
mixed farms; computers; self-sufficient; modern technology; sectors; the disappearance; farm animals; crops; efficient; compete.
1. Agriculture is one of the most important _______ in British economy. 2. Great Britain is _________ in milk, eggs, meat, potatoes and wheat. 3. In the West climate is good for the production of _________ . 4. There are a lot of farms where farmers grow some ________ and breed some farm animals. These farms are known as ___________ . 5. British agriculture is _________ for it is based on ________ and research. 6. Different machines and ________ are used by the farmers. 7. The tendency in agricultural development of the country is ________ of small traditional farms as they cannot _______ with big industrial farms.
IV. Match the synonyms:
self-sufficient, share, agriculture, self-supporting, trend, production, for, to provide, significant, because, part, farming, tendency, producing, developed, about, efficient, to supply, important, advanced, nearly, effective.
V. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary:
1. Agriculture is one ... the most important sectors ... British economy. 2. Its share ... the gross domestic product is less than 3 per cent — the lowest figure ... the developed countries. 3. Great Britain is self-sufficient ... milk, eggs, to a very great extent ... meat, potatoes and wheat. 4. Most ... the farms are small family farms, where all ... the work is done ... the farmer and his family. 5. The tendency ... agricultural development ... the country is the disappearance ... small traditional farms as they cannot compete ... big industrial farms. 6. The types ... farms are different ... different regions ... the country. 7. ... the West climate is good ... the production ... farm animals. 8. British agriculture is efficient ... it is based ... modern technology and research.
VI. Answer the following questions:
1. Is agriculture one of the most important sectors in British economy? 2. What is the share of the gross domestic product? 3. What agricultural products is Great Britain self-sufficient in? 4. What products does the country import? 5. How many farms are there in Great Britain? 6. What is the tendency in agricultural development of the country? 7. The types of farms are different in different regions of Great Britain, aren’t they? 8. What three types of farms are there in the country? 9. Why is the British agriculture is efficient?
VII. Translate into English:
1. Ciльське господарство — один з найважливiших секторів економіки Великобританiї. 2. Країна сама себе забезпечує молоком, яйцями і значною мiрою м’ясом, картоплею та пшеницею. 3. Великобританiя iмпортує масло, сир, цукор, чай, фрукти та iншi сiльськогосподарськi продукти. 4. Фермерськi господарства рiзнi в рiзних регiонах. 5. На сходi країни фермери вирощують такi культури, як ячмiнь, пшениця, цукровий буряк та картопля. 6. На заходi клiмат сприятливий для розвитку тваринництва. 7. Сiльське господарство Великобританiї є ефективним, оскiльки воно ґрунтується на сучасних технологiях та дослiдженнях.
1. You have an exam. Your question is: «Great Britain as an industrial country»
2. You are at the conference. The theme of your report is: «The role of services in British economy»
3. Your English friend tells you about Great Britain as one of the largest trading nations in the world.
4. You have just come from Great Britain. Make a report in your class: «Agriculture — one of the most important sectors in British economy»