Topic 5. Recreational activities: features, principles and principles of the organization
The purpose of the lectures: Teach the object of tourist and recreational activities recreational potential, which refers to the totality of the natural, cultural - historical and socio - economic givens, creates prerequisites for organizing and conducting tourism and recreation.
1. The territorial recreational systems and tasks of their geographical study.
2. Assessment of tourist - recreational resources.
3. Features and principles of tour operators
Local recreational and objectives of their geographical study. Key integrated features TRS are determined not only and not so much the properties of its individual elements as properties of its structure, relations between its elements. Synthesize information elements in the relationship TPC, are the subject of systems analysis of recreational activities and services can be in the form of a matrix binder which constitute the primary elements of the TPC (Table. 2). At the same time we use the approach proposed V.M.Krivosheevym and IV Zorin (1979). Elements TPC analyzed for line matrix acts as an active subsystem, forming an order (make demands on the state of the other elements); column of the matrix elements are considered the same as resources meeting these zkazov.
The relationship of the central subsystem TRS - a group of travelers - with the other subsystems are described through cycles of recreational activities and selectivity of spatio-temporal structures of the TPC.
Communication "group travelers" (GO) with a "natural (cultural and historical) complex" is defined selectivity of various socio-demographic and occupational groups, and are the subject-object character. They are reflected system properties such as the attractiveness of the natural complex, its capacity, stability, comfort.
Attraction of natural systems is transmitted by such characteristics as exotic (contrast ratio of landscape conditions recreation areas to the place of permanent residence), uniqueness (the frequency of occurrence or the originality of the objects and phenomena), can be transmitted through a landscape diversity of the natural complex. The recreational geography developed a special type of assessment of natural systems - aesthetic evaluation, which reflects the results of the analysis of the relationships of different groups of tourists (residents lowland forest areas and residents of mountainous areas) and natural systems through the exotic nature of the natural provinces.
Capacity and sustainability of natural systems to the recreational load - the system property, which reflects the relationship group of tourists and natural complex in recreational activities. Excessive concentration of tourists in limited areas accompanied recreational digression natural complex. Therefore, a definition of environmentally permissible loads on natural systems, the selection of recreational activities that can be organized without compromising the natural balance and the ability to restore the landscape.
When technological evaluation of natural systems as determined by their capacity and suitability for different types of recreational activities, it is necessary to take into account their stability during use, to develop measures that enhance the ability to withstand recreational land operational loads, which must be environmentally sound.
The comfort of the natural complex - a property that reflects the length of time the conditions favorable to the human body. This indicator is analyzed at the physiological assessment, when the object of evaluation serves the climate, and the subject of evaluation - the state of the human body at rest. Analysis of the relationship status of the human body (through the thermoregulatory load) and features a number of meteorological elements (air temperature, wind speed, total solar radiation) has allowed to develop a typology of recreational classes weather and determine the duration of a comfortable, friendly and uncomfortable to rest periods in certain areas.
Communications group travelers with the subsystem "technical facilities" reflect the system properties such as diversity and capacity. Recreational flow is very heterogeneous in structure and requires appropriate types of institutions and territories to implement a variety of recreational activities. Celebrating 60 years of the disproportion between the demand (for example, institutions with the active motor mode) and a recreational network system caused extensive measures to further develop the network of tourist facilities, maintenance of social groups with a high level of demand (family tourism, caravanning). A variety of types of businesses and recreational infrastructure transferred their typology of functional specialization, a combination of urban and natural components. Different levels of capacity and comfort of accommodation is reflected in the differentiation by class recreational facilities (deluxe, higher, first, etc.).
Group of tourists makes for "service personnel" requirements of high quality service, waiting staff are competent, considerate and attentive to the needs of holidaymakers. The high level of the specialty defines the term professionalism. The work of many categories of staff in tourism consists of two components: the first - the material and objective activity (operations with objects and tools), the second - the communicative activities (direct contact with the tourists). This increases the role of the subjective factor in achieving the goal of high-quality service.
Evaluation of tourist - recreational resources. Determination of the quality of service through the assessment of consumers (using questionnaires, analysis of the book of complaints and suggestions) reveals the level of professionalism of the different units of service. An indicator of the intensity of the service is the ratio of the number of tourists to the number of staff.
Group of tourists in the preparation and carrying out of tourist travel (the act of tourism consumption) makes great demand for information services (on the status of the individual subsystems TRS, nature tourism services, peculiarities of technology services in the areas of recreation, etc.), Who must provide a "governing body" recreation system. This property can be defined as the awareness of the group of tourists (and system). It increases the activity of advertising and information services that are using print, film, television and radio, and other means to inform about the nature of recreation services. The high level of awareness of effective impact on the optimal distribution of recreational streams, ready for consumption of tourist services and goods, operational decisions.
Links that reflect the natural complex relationship with other elements of the TPC, are the next character.
"Nature Complex" (PC) due to cyclical natural processes imposes some limitations on "a group of tourists." For example, some types of recreational activities can be implemented only at certain times of the year (the bathing-beach cycle - in the summer, ski touring - winter), while others are completely forbidden (fishing during the spawning season, hunting out of time). Thus, the seasonal dynamics of natural processes requires an appropriate rhythm of tourist flows. This property TRS may reflect calendar holiday, which is made during the evaluation process of the natural complex and contains information about a possible set of recreational activities and their duration in some seasons, determined by environmental and technological criteria.
Relationships with the natural complex "engineering subsystem" reflects the environmental characteristics of the material-technical base of tourism (the company accommodation, transport). Natural complex impose appropriate restrictions on capacity and type of accommodation in accordance with its resistance to the recreation load, which can be enhanced engineering and reclamation activities, landscaping. Processes recreational services should be eco-friendly by preventing degradation of valuable natural complex of recreational properties. It is important that this requirement was the primary, it is laid at the stage of design and construction of engineering structures, construction of tourist goods and equipment. Secondary measures such as a ban on the use of outboard motors (cause - water pollution with oil products), motor vehicles and motorcycles (high noise level, gas concentration) in areas of recreation are the result of low environmental data structures (models).
Reflects this characteristic norm density of different types of structures, the intensity of technological processes, as well as technological factors sustainability PC (the number of ski runs and hiking trails in the unit area, the water area on vessels, etc.).
In the operation of the natural complex is in need of measures to maintain its stability, preservation of valuable recreational properties, waste disposal. Work on the remediation and reclamation of natural complex performs the "staff", in accordance with the regulatory lifetime of the individual sections, the seasonal dynamics of natural processes. Regulation as a systemic characteristic of the relationship of the natural complex and staff reflects the nature and priority of remediation, the cost. Natural complex area of securities through recreational land also affects the number of staff and its concentration per unit area extraction system of the recreational areas for housing and social infrastructure, the limitations of which (or excessive withdrawal) affects the functioning of the entire system.
The relationship of the natural complex and the "governing body" passed characteristic normative provision, which reflects the system of regulations and standards to ensure efficient use and conservation of natural recreation areas and cultural and historical sites. This legislation and the provisions of resorts and recreation areas, districts of sanitary protection, regulations on state of the environment in recreational areas (air, water, soil), standards for design and construction, the stability of natural systems to the recreational load and others. It should be noted that normative provision of recreational services is considerably complicated a wide variety of landscape conditions of rest, which requires the development of the industry along with the differentiated regional norms and standards.
Relationships subsystem "technical facilities and infrastructure" (TC) with other elements of the TPC are characterized by the following features.
Recreational respective enterprise types and classes require homogeneity of the tourist flow in the service which they specialize. Homogeneous flow improves the occupancy of accommodation, ensures the implementation of the entire production cycle. The presence of flow in heterogeneous groups (non-standard for the maintenance cycle), for example, married couples in institutions that do not have housing facilities for double occupancy, people with disabilities Health on routes with active ways of movement, leading to disruptions in the process chain maintenance.
Interaction of technical subsystems with "natural complex" reflect the characteristics of reliability and resource maintenance of the system. Recreational enterprises of appropriate power, class and specialization must have the necessary resource base for the effective functioning (the area beaches, recreational land, debit mineral sources, the number of excursion sites, etc.). Resourcing needs to be taken into account at the planning stage capacity of the territory and capacity material and technical base, it is characterized by the volume of operational stocks, capacity areas and facilities. Project solution should provide the transition to the use of new types of resources, involvement in the operation less comfortable areas and objects (after reclamation), other activities that increase the resourcing of the system and its reliability.
Technical facilities and infrastructure should be provided with the labor force, in accordance with their capacity and technology of recreational services. Trudoobespechennost as a characteristic of the relationship of technical subsystem and the "staff" largely affects the development of recreational facilities and due to seasonal causes a number of social and economic problems. Labor shortages may slow down the development of new areas, to contain the expansion of existing facilities, requires an additional influx of staff in the tourist season.
Technical Communications subsystem "Control" can be reflected characteristic of capital-labor ratio, which reflects the activity of logistics (such as block management body) for the financial and material provision of recreational services. The indicators are the volume of regulatory capital-labor ratio and working capital of recreational enterprises, the size of investment in the expansion of the facilities and infrastructure.
No less complex nature of the system is the relationship "staff" (OP) with other elements of the TPC.
Features and principles of tour operators. The number of staff is calculated in accordance with the annual capacity of the flow of holidaymakers industry regulations on the number of tourists or the number of service areas. However, the staff needs of the corresponding group of holidaymakers characteristics of the process. As a rule, technology standard homogeneous flow above, this desire to specialize in serving the recreational facilities of similar socio-demographic groups. The predominance of the tourism sector in the group of the principle of service suggests that some vacationers should subordinate their interests to common group. Indicators of socio-demographic structure of the recreational stream recreational skill, cultural, educational and open readiness (technological) recreational stream for service.
Relations staff and "natural complex" nature of the requirements for its reflective properties of the natural environment of comfort for the life of the people. Evaluation of the natural environment for work and residence does not always coincide with the estimates for holidaymakers. For example, mountainous and sparsely populated areas - a necessary condition for the sports tourist travel, but for the work and life of the staff (trainers, control and rescue service, etc.). These areas are uncomfortable.
Communications staff with "technical subsystem" describes the characteristics of capital-labor activity, the level of mechanization of maintenance. However, the staff makes the requirements of integrated recreational infrastructure. The technical subsystem must have sufficient network of social and cultural institutions to serve the employees of recreational facilities (complexes) and their families.
The staff makes a "governance body" requirement of security of employment and health. The system of measures aimed at the prevention of occupational injuries, occupational diseases, is implemented by the management for the staff is defined as a level profilaktichnosti TPC.
Relationships "Control" (op amps) to "a group of holiday makers" are multidimensional. Uniformity - One of the main requirements governing body for recreational flow as a steady stream of tourists uniform character ensures smooth operation of all elements of the TPC to increase the economic efficiency of material and technical base, provide employment of staff. The system of measures to expand the range of services and the development of recreational infrastructure, development of recreation programs for groups of travelers who respond poorly to the natural environment (music festivals, national and ethnographic festivals, exhibitions, fairs, sporting events), aimed ultimately at reducing seasonality in tourism service and ensure a uniform flow of recreation.
The management body makes to "natural complex" series of requirements relating to the health situation of geographical area recreation.
2. Tourism and nature protection.?
3. Socio - economic preconditions of tourism development
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