Topic 6. The study of tourism with other fields of knowledge
The purpose of the lectures: Tourism covers many areas of human life, and therefore the study of tourism is closely connected with the study of psychology, anthropology, sociology, economics, geography, information technology, logistics, law and education.
Keywords: round, anthropology
1. The study of tourism with other areas of knowledge.
4. Investigation of the potential of the tourist market of consumers
5. Right. The economy is an important part of Tourism
The study of tourism with other areas of knowledge. Tourism resources are present in almost all parts of the world, on all continents and in all countries. In terms of freedom of choice of direction and type of tourism organizers Tourism is important to know and forecast tourist flows and even control them.
Phsychology. What is the direction of travel the tourist chooses which country would be preferable to this season, what kind of tourism will be the most popular? What is beneficial to offer the tourist market, where to direct activity in the promotion of its tourism product? How to build a tour to best meet the customer's wishes? In many of these questions can not be answered without studying the psychology of human behavior and motivation background and decision-making.
Without studying and understanding the motivation of the client desires is impossible to properly build the tour and offer it to the consumer market, and most importantly, to satisfy the desires of the client, provide him with a positive range of tourist experiences and emotions. The law "a fly in the ointment", unfortunately, also applies to tourism, it is enough the slightest disruption to a positive impression of carefully prepared and organized travel was lost.
It should be a thorough study of human behavior in various situations, motivation, decision-making, choice (preferences), type of holiday, the main and related objectives, direction of travel, choice of partners and tourist firms. Motives of fulfillment of travel can be very different and largely depend on the age, intelligence, consistency (availability of funds), belonging to a particular caste or a circle of society and many other factors. Tourists are for various reasons: in order to rest and leisure, memories and knowledge of the unknown, for fun, for religious reasons, for treatment, visiting relatives and many others. The science that deals with a wide range of knowledge in this area, called psychographics, and its methods are widely used in the marketing of tourism.
Changes in motivation when choosing a travel entails very negative consequences for the tourism firms offering tourist products in the consumer market. The manifestation of inattention to the moods, the fashion, the overall political and economic situation and many other factors significantly affect the outcome of the motivation that determines the direction of tourist flows, entails the loss of customers and the emergence of economic difficulties in the tourist activity. For a long time, Hong Kong was a major tourist center, but its transition in 1997 under the jurisdiction of China had a negative impact on the volume of tourist traffic in the metropolis and caused their decline and the crisis in the tourism sector the region.
Recently, residents of large cities and industrial centers prefer "green", or ecological tourism in preserved areas with clean prirodoy.Proektirovanie tourist product begins about two years before presenting it to wholesale at tourist exhibitions or fairs. You must have a professional understanding, intuition and deep experience in forecasting tourism in effective demand, which largely depends on factors and events that determine the life of the person and the community.
Anthropology. Antropolologiya exploring the culture and the human impact on the environment. The goal - the disclosure of the complex nature of human life, the structure of relationships, human behavior in society. We study the important preconditions, on the basis of which there are incentive travel companies, social, cultural and economic conditions, causing the need for travel. We study the impact of tourists on the environment, interaction with local people in different situations, the impact of tourism on the local culture and the development of international contacts. This study contributes to the definition of anthropology limit loads on the tourist facilities and centers, and allows you to properly allocate and direct the tourist flows.
In the end, we answer the question: how many tourists can visit this place without prejudice to the object and for the tourists, can provide access and correct perception of tourist information and Miropoznanie, targeted use of these resources? This information allows you to plan tourism at different levels of a single object, place, region.
Sociology. Sociology - the study of the social conditions conducive to the movement of a person. For the existence of tourism as a phenomenon in human life, you must have at least two important conditions: free time and sufficient funds for the implementation of tourist travel, as well as calm the political situation, ensuring freedom of movement.
Tourism is very sensitive to any manifestation of disequilibrium prevailing social relations. Suffice it to happen the biggest events in the world of public life, or changes in the economic system, as the state and dynamics of tourism development directly reflect the state of development of the society.
Tourism is seen as a social phenomenon in constant evolution. We study the conditions that determine the mass tourism, the selection of people in the group, the formation of tourist flows on the basis of social characteristics. Sociology using the methods of psychology and anthropology examines the behavior of different groups of people in multiple situations.
These polls are an important starting point for the projections and recommendations on policy promotion of the tourist product to the market of the consumer, as well as the basis for making important political and economic decisions in the field of customs and migratory relations and rules.
Economy. Tourism - formation category and primarily economic. This multi-faceted economic activity as organizers of tourism and the actual consumers of tourism - tourists. Each stage of development of the world and national tourism is characterized by the special characteristics and indicators of the activity of all participants.
Each tourist region, every country, every city and locality seek rational use of tourist resources to produce economic benefits and income. However, this is not easy, even with ardent desire. In each country, its political foundations and the direction of economic development and the multifaceted traditions of the society. To attract tourists, even in the extremely interesting objects and events needed tourist industry and infrastructure that can provide tourists with an appropriate level of service to ensure the safety, harmonious satisfaction of tourist interest and needs. To implement the idea of attracting tourist flows multifaceted and carefully studied and evaluated by proper tourist resources and their potential, characteristics and potential of tourist industry, demographic characteristics of populations, the potential demand for these resources and, ultimately, the forecast of tourist flows and their regulation, and also the necessary planning of industry segments, providing them. Do not forget about the problems of the local population, which must be able to receive foreign tourists. So many problems in reconciling the local norms and customs of foreigners behavior. If there are significant contradictions, tourism
It may not take place. So, in Sharjah (UAE) due to Islamic restrictions requirements for tourists so hard (the use of alcohol, behavior, and women's clothing, the use of the Europeans corporal punishment of caning for breach of local laws and customs, and others) that quantify the tourist flows in the tourist center because of these factors weakened, and for some period ceased altogether. The nearby nearby region - Dubai, while mitigating the same requirements, and tourist flows were redirected to the tourist center.
Tourism is considered to be "Hen that lays golden eggs." But the biblical witness is true also that, if the mythical "kuru" do not feed, it can either stop carry those eggs, or eggs will not be of that size and quality, or chicken itself will die. Therefore, tourist centers and regions not only earn on tourism, but also allocate huge funds for the harmonious development of the tourism industry and the promotion of tourist product on external and internal markets. And enough to overlook any segment of the tourism industry as an immediate impact on the performance potential and real activity. The funds allocated for the development of tourism are expressed, for the first and uneducated opinion, in astronomical numbers, but experience shows that these costs are justified because they allow states to get even bigger in size, income from tourism. Not all states are building policy with regard to tourism
equally. For example, Japan - an island nation, historically builds a closed society for a long time did not pay attention to inbound tourism, and because of the limited areas actively initiated its citizens to travel around the world. Even the hotel industry has been focused on the reception of foreign tourists: hotels were built on standards-oriented accommodation undersized population that do not meet
European standards on dimensions of rooms and ceiling height. Do not initiate development of tourist-excursion service
foreign tourists. But the country's economy for a long time to develop actively and without tourism, demanded new sources of inflow of vitality. The Japanese government has revised its concept with regard to the development of tourism in the country and has allocated $ 2 billion for activities to promote the national tourist product on the world tourist market in order to attract tourist flows to the country from other regions. In view of the above interesting activity China. Outing tourist flows from this country are insignificant, because the state is not formed a legal institution of paid annual leave, and a significant portion of the population engaged in agriculture, do not have the means to make traveling abroad. Volumes of outbound tourism does not exceed 5 million per year, relative to the total population of 1 billion, it is a sufficiently small value. However, inbound tourism develops. China in the World Economy Tourism is currently the most attractive tourism region with a large amount of the actual objects of tourist interest, a developed tourism industry and positive for tourism
State policy. According to experts of the WTO, in the coming years, China will become the most visited tourist destinations in the world. Already in 1998, visited China more than 65 million tourists.
By 2010, it is planned that China will visit the 125 million international tourists. These planned tourist flows are impressive.
Among the revenue and, consequently, expenditure items of the state budget is no article "tourism", and the structure of departmental expenditure figures for directions and funding such that GKTF Russia, in whose jurisdiction is tourism, has the task of financing items of physical culture and sports in the amount of more than 90 % of the total financing of the agency.
A study of the potential of the tourist market of consumers. Tourists from different countries, despite the considerable community of the nature and objectives of consumption of tourist products, however, have significant differences. The essence of these differences lies in their familiar way of life and relaxation, the depth of information and to see the tourist resources, knowledge of history, the ability to perceive reality objectively and harmoniously use available in the tourist center of the tourist resources and opportunities.
To make efficient use of tourism resources for the reception of tourists, especially foreign ones, should carefully study their way of life, especially the national character, the level of training and the possibility of an adequate perception of objects of tourist interest. All these indicators and characteristics are taken into account when designing a tourist product, the volume and level of services, excursions and other texts.
Currently, the most common form of research - collecting official statistics entry and exit of tourists in the tourist center and the regions, special studies of tourist flows, modes of transportation, the needs of tourists and their ability to pay, and other characteristics of the potential market of consumers, in particular the perception of tourist resources and other analysis of tourism activities and, most importantly, profitability of tourism for the region. Much of this research conducted by sociologists and marketers of tourist centers and used in the formation of strategic and operational plans for the development of tourist regions and centers. For example, in the "Strategic Plan for St. Petersburg," tourism as the definition of the state of priority economic sectors in a separate section rather surround planning document.
Geography. Critical Accounting Estimates, geographical and other related factors in the assessment of tourism potential resources of the area. The geographic, climatic, demographic information, trends and forecasts of the changes needed for a thorough inter-regional, regional and sub-regional tourism development planning, planning the development of facilities and the tourist industry, investment in the tourism industry, the planning of tourist flows and, ultimately, employment and Revenue from tourism.
Every sector of the economy at the present stage of development can not do without a strong information support.
This systematic data on various areas of expertise that are available for use in tourism. Today, the important role played by various automated information systems of tourist booking services, information databases of tourist resources, tourism product in a wide variety of media - in the form of books, manuals, catalogs, brochures, guidebooks, timetables time table. Many tourist companies are composed of not only the travel agencies, and powerful, and information centers and publishers. To those should include the Reed Travel Group (UK). Note that the guides began to exist before the development of tourism. By the time Thomas Cook organized the first tourist trip in London guides already existed for making a trip to Paris. Many famous tourist guides includes more than 100-year history.
Today, many data sets are formed on the CD-ROM. The technical revolution in the computer equipment after 1990 gave rise to a powerful automated system for the purposes of tourism. Created and successfully operated global world computer systems - Amadeus (Europe), Sabre (USA), Galileo (UK), Gabriel and others. Particularly widespread, these systems have in the organization of transport, especially air, as well as booking hotels and other services.
Even more powerful impetus to the development of the tourist information gave users of the global Internet. Today, almost all tourist agencies have access to this network or via email e-mail, or the device's own Web-site information, which allows full enough to provide any network user extensive information on tourism and other services. Huge information pages have both public agencies responsible for tourism, and private companies, tourist agencies, hotels, tourist associations, carriers, firms providing services to attractions. Placing information on the Internet is generally cheaper publication of books and brochures, information easily and quickly modified, it can be represented by a color illustration material of high quality. Information is available for a very wide range of users in developed countries. In Russia, the number of Internet users is estimated as 5 million people.
Right. Tourism is an important component of the economy of much of the country, as well as an important component of international relations and business activity, requires a special legal regulation. It formed a special branch - the right camping.
National law. Many countries have adopted national laws on tourism, which define the basic concepts and principles of development and standards of tourist activity for companies resident or not. For the latter are usually introduced certain restrictions on the activities. Special regulation of relations of the organizers of tourism and tourist clients.
1. Tourist right - it's ...?
2. Tourism and nature protection.?
3. Study the potential of the tourist market of consumers
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