The purpose of the lectures: Teach the object of tourist and recreational activities recreational potential, which refers to the totality of the natural, cultural - historical and socio - economic givens, creates prerequisites for organizing and conducting tourism and recreation.
1. Recreational capacity of the territory. Tourism and nature conservation.
2. Assessment of tourist - recreational resources.
3. Natural resource potential of the regions
The recreational capacity of the territory. Tourism and nature conservation. The object of tourism and recreation activities in favor recreational potential, which refers to the totality of the natural, cultural - historical and socio - economic givens, creates prerequisites for organizing and conducting tourism and recreation. In the study of the recreational potential of geography there is a problem determining the levels of evaluation.
Depending on the scale of assessment of the concept of changing the amount of recreational potential and its constituent elements, and following this, and recreational capacity of the territory. Recreational potential rank of the country or economic area of the first-order component includes both resource and economic potential of recreation - fixed assets and human resources. Unlike them, the potential of individual functional areas of the resort and the National Park to rely on a much smaller set of components.
At the level of the country and economic area of the concept of recreational capacity expresses the dependence of the optimal recreational stream the level of economic development, living standards, opportunities to attract labor resources in the sphere of tourism and recreation, and others. The flux recreants depends on the size of the country, from the inventory of tourist and recreational resources and their diversity and the spatial - temporal distribution, the degree of development of the necessary infrastructure. The optimum flow value, ceteris paribus, at least a function of resources, infrastructure and transport accessibility.
Continuously increasing process of involving more people in cycles of recreational pursuits causes constant expansion of areas covered in varying degrees of recreational activities. Even more rapidly evolving process of intensification of use of the territory, which leads to increased exposure to holidaymakers on natural systems.
In this regard, there is a problem of optimization recreational pressure on natural systems in order to prevent their degradation and conservation of comfort recreational activities. The essence of the problem boils down to the justification of the environmental pressure on natural systems (not exceeding the limits of their natural regenerative abilities) through the establishment of standards for recreational impacts.
Norms of recreational loading on natural complexes extensive literature in the CIS and abroad. However, since full-scale investigation is carried out from case to case, the mass of material (especially long-term observations) is still very small and many recreational load norms are based on data from a single observation or derived empirically on the basis of experience in the design and operation. The regulations should be "zoned", providing a balance of natural ingredients specific areas and functional areas based on the intensity of exposure and usage.
In world practice of tourism - recreational use of natural systems there are big differences in the standards.
Load capacity A Kostrovitsky defined as the maximum number of people that are moving non-stop for 8 hours. 1 ha of natural territorial complexes leads to the top of grassland degradation. Polyakov Marsh brings clarification to the definition, noting that allowed a view of degradation can be considered as one in which the entire area of 3m2 trampled there is at least one area of 1 dm 2, where the ground cover is destroyed completely.
The stability of natural complex depends not only on phytocenotic component, but also the nature of the soil, slope surface and the other is still poorly studied in this respect, its natural systems.
At the heart of many recent studies are based on the Soviet position on the stages of "recreational digression" by analogy with the stages of pasture digression. Studying urban zone near Moscow, NS Kazan (1972) identified and described 5 stages recreational digression.
1. Human activities are not made to the forest complex is no noticeable changes.
2. Recreational human impact is reflected in the establishment of a sparse network of paths in the appearance among the herbaceous plants of some light-loving species. In the initial phase of the destruction of the litter.
3. Tropinochnaya network is relatively dense. The herbaceous cover is dominated by light-loving species, begin to appear and meadow grass, litter thickness decreases in the areas of reforestation vnetropinochnyh still satisfactory.
4. The paths entangle the dense network of forest as part of the grassy cover the actual number of forest species is insignificant, viable undergrowth young age (5-7 years) virtually no litter is found only in fragments from the trunks of trees.
5. The complete absence of litter and undergrowth separate instances on vytaptonnoy areas - weeds and annual grasses.
The stability boundary of the natural complex, ie, limit, after which the changes occur, it is between 3 and 4 stages. Accordingly, for the maximum allowable load that is received, which corresponds to step 3 digression. Irreversible changes in the natural complex begins at stage 4, and the threat of destruction of forest plantations - 5 stage.
1.2 and part 3 stages of digression vegetation in terms of aesthetic appeal in some cases deemed attractive.
B Rodomanov developed linear - network zoning principle in the organization of the suburban recreation. In his theoretical scheme he identifies three areas differing degrees of use of the land for recreational purposes: 1 - High, 2 - Medium, 3 low level of recreational use.
The development of tourism and protection of nature. The manifestation of the negative impact on the environment are very different, and some of them are very harmful. But all of this is further exacerbated if tourism is planned, developed and managed badly - it can produce negative environmental impacts.
In the postwar years, this process has become even more intense, resulting in many cases to the phenomena that Western European and Nordic Geographers define the term "tourist urbanization" of the natural environment. Urbanization is occurring as a result of the development of tourism functions, linked in many countries. First of all, a sharp rise in the number of "second homes", the construction of which is accompanied by the development of the necessary devices and social - technical base. Often, the network of "second homes" is developing chaotically and bezplanovo, and their excessive accumulation of negative impact on the natural environment and its merits.
The phenomenon of excessive "tourism urbanization" is observed even in the centers. Development of which is associated with other types of tourist facilities.
The development of motorization and "motor" tourism has caused the process of air pollution, which is already above the dust and gases thrown all sorts of utilities. Rising air pollution vehicles significantly reduces the advantages of climatic regions and places of settlement, showing even a threat to human health.
The ever-growing popularity of water - motor sport poses a threat to the frequency of water, rivers and reservoirs. Water pollution occurs due to discharges utilities tourist centers. Attention is drawn to the fact that many of these bases do not have the treatment facilities, and this leads to a direct hit in the waste water.
Noise pollution generated by the loudspeaker device focuses heavily mass concentration of tourists and noisy vehicles is one of the most damaging environmental impacts created by the negative activities "tourist urbanization."
Problems of waste disposal and waste left by tourists in the nature areas and their improper removal of tourist facilities is a result of the adverse environmental impact "tourism urbanization" on the environment and underdeveloped aesthetic and cultural development of tourists.
One of the main problems is tourist land. It was as a result of the impact of "tourism urbanization" on the environment. The main prerequisites for the problem of land tenure is a deterioration of aesthetics and even the destruction of the landscape as a result of series of factors: an excessive concentration of tourist devices, their inappropriate location, poorly designed hotels and other tourist facilities, planned their location, inept writing facilities in the area, the use of very large and bright advertising signage and billboards, the deterioration of the beautiful species obscures the advertising and building tourist facilities.
1. The development of tourism and protection of nature?
2. Tourism and nature protection.?
3. Socio - economic preconditions of tourism development
1 MB Birzhakov, "Introduction to Tourism", M., - C-PTB. 2003
2. SR Erdavletov, "Fundamentals of the geography of tourism", Almaty, 1992
3. AJ Alexandrov, "International tourism", M., 2004
4. UNWTO World Tourism Barometer (World Tourism Organization) 11 (1). January 2013. Retrieved2013-04-09.