Development of transport infrastructure as a basic element of the mechanism of increasing the mobility of resources in the regional economy.
Natural resource potential of the regions. Natural resource potential of the District is one of the main preconditions and prejudice is one of the most important areas of specialization of the region - the development of recreation, which is now grown in priority sectors of the economy. This macro-region to other regions of the allocated wealth of natural landscapes feature is their diversity.
South region, unlike other regions, has a unique variety of natural recreational resources:
• a variety of natural areas;
• a variety of climatic conditions;
• presence of almost all kinds of used mineral waters, therapeutic muds;
A variety of eco-friendly landscapes (non-economic burden) - Coast of the seas, estuaries, lakes, mountains.
These areas of interest in terms of the aesthetics of landscapes, are suitable for the organization of road and mototouristik, hiking, children's tourism, for recreation weekend. However, the most interesting are the mountain ranges of the northern slope.
The balneological resources are state property and balneological institutions (mud baths, inhalation, spas) were in charge of resort establishments of trade unions. Author's position on the need for a systematic approach to the development of tourism and recreation areas is also based on an analysis of foreign experience of development of tourist regions through the use of the "polar" approach to the development of the territory. For example, Turkey has used to address regional economic problems theoretical positions of "poles of development", which are used in many countries to develop strategies for spatial and economic development.
"Poles of development" are the centers and areas of economic space, which houses the company's leading industries, they actually become "points of growth" and the poles of attraction of production factors, as they provide the most effective use of them. This in turn leads to the formation of growth poles. The experience of Turkey and other countries has shown that as a "pole of development" can be considered a set of business tourism as the leading sector, and the specific areas that provide the economy of the country or region function a source of innovation and progress.
For the "pole" of the project of tourist-recreational system, which has its own distinctive features it is necessary to make real inventory of tourism resources and subjects of the District to determine the feasibility of the inclusion in the tourism and recreation system supporting the tourist centers. That is a separate stand-alone operation of the local parts of the tourist and recreational system will gradually increase tourist flows around them, extending the zone of influence, drawing in more and more support centers indirectly by financing them as long as they, through the implementation of its tourist potential has not become independent system-centers.
Such centers, united by a common tourist routes will be based on sound logic of historical, cultural, infrastructural links southern Russian region, the full functioning of established tourism and recreation system. In support of this operation is necessary to provide for the establishment of a common transport network within the tourism and recreational systems involving the use of different modes of transport.
Points of preventing the creation of the "Golden Ring of the Great Steppe":
1. Uneven and fragmented economic development of the southern regions (significant difference between, for example, South Kazakhstan Territory).
2. The archaic form of management in the North Kazakh Hihg land republics: conservatism and mosaic economy of West Kazakhstan republics continue to reproduce patriarchal forms of management;
3. The low level of modernization of the economy in the republics.
4. Substantial informal sector.
5. The low level of concentration and specialization of production, the raw nature of the economy, weak innovation sensitivity of the economy.
The criteria and evaluation methodology recreation area. Determination of suitability and estimation of the resources of the natural environment for the purpose of recreation and tourism - one of the main objectives of the geography of tourism - is in the domain of the general problems of geography in general, which is the evaluation of natural conditions and resources to the needs of individual branches of social activity. But the notion of tourist - recreational resources, as we know, also includes objects and phenomena of human order.
Assessment of natural conditions for recreation and tourism is very complex. In contrast to the assessment of therapeutic resources here are such factors as the attractiveness of landscapes, their surprise, exotic, unique.
Since the estimate reflects the relationship between the object and the subject of estimation procedure consists of the following mandatory steps: 1) selection of the object evaluation - natural systems, their components and properties; 2) the selection of the subject from a position which is being evaluated; 3) formulation of the evaluation criteria, which are defined as the scale and purpose of the study, and the properties of the subject; 4) the development of rating scales gradation settings. It has a synthetic character, since in these scales and is score.
The scales show the estimated relationship between subject and object. This is always a question about the number of steps of the scale. The most commonly used 3-4 or 5-6 stages. Each stage is an indicator of the intensity of the interaction between the properties of the object to the state of the subject. The intensity of interaction may vary from mild to severe. Pyatistupennaya rating scale preconditions for recreation includes the following gradation: 1) the most favorable; 2) favorable; 3) moderately favorable; 4) rather discouraging; 5) adverse.
Complex and little studied is the question of the magnitude of the intervals between the stages. To answer this question, it is necessary to examine the nature of the relationship between subject and object.
Evaluation of tourist - recreational resources should be conducted on a set of indicators and a clear indication of the object and its assessment of the subject. There was three main types of evaluation of tourist resources: 1) Medical - biological (physiological) - revealing the degree of comfort; 2) psychological - aesthetic - analysis of the nature of the emotional impact of the environment on a rest; 3) technological - to determine the suitability of resources for the organization of various types of tourism.
The complex nature of recreational resources requires a combination of all three types of evaluation to determine the integral value of the resources, forms of their rational use.
According E.V.Efremenko, a comprehensive evaluation should include an assessment of: 1) natural features; 2) the degree of cultural development of the territory; 3) the originality; 4) tourism opportunities in the degree of diversity training in their spare time; 5) historical - cultural sites; 6) domestic service; 7) the extent and popularity and tradition.
Valuation of to determine the most important tourist flows, provides indirect information about the composition of tourists. On routes with a high potential natural opportunities rushes mostly young people, in the same place, well-known cultural and historical monuments, people tend to go more advanced age. But in all cases necessarily rule - the tourists are concentrated in areas with higher scores bonitet.
Bonitirovochnaya system makes it possible to apply objective criteria for the selection of tourist areas.The zoning for the purposes of recreation and tourism, functional typology of tourist destinations.
Defining a tourist area as a "territorial unit that combines a community of socio-economic, cultural - historical and natural - geographic conditions of tourism development", it is believed that the boundaries of the tourist district should be considered as an administrative boundary of the district.
Administrative area - it is a grassroots administrative - economic area, ie, the primary unit received in our country economic zoning.
Tourist areas have a number of characteristics.
1. tourist areas - social in nature, and the final product (tourist services) education.
2. For the typical tourist areas chetyrehediny process of social reproduction: production, exchange, distribution and consumption. In tourist areas, between the two extreme phases - production and consumption - as a rule, there is no time gap. This applies to primary production - tourism services, which can not accumulate in the proc.
3. To accommodate the tourist areas, carrying out functions of a long holiday, characterized by a pronounced orientation to the resources in this - their resemblance to the industry of mining areas, fishing, forest industry. And some agricultural areas. In contrast to the suburban areas. Formation which are determined by transport availability, tourist areas of international and national importance, all other things being equal socio - economic conditions arise from the unique combination of tourist - recreational resources, distribution is limited.
4. Many tourist areas characterized by seasonality of operation due to both natural rhythm, and several aspects of social organization.
For Tourism estimated relief, water, vegetation, climate, outstanding objects of nature and culture.
Analysis of the seasons of the year with the counting of the number of days saline suitable for recreation in different seasons, allows immediate, without the analysis of the remaining units excluded from areas suitable for stationary recreation of people, far north, mountainous region, where conditions cause a sharp meteotropnye reaction of the organism, and the desert with their sultry long dry summer. Among the limiting factors are also heavily waterlogged and the availability of endemic infectious foci. The continuous urbanization in the absence of historical and architectural monuments are also used for many types of tourism limiting element.
Tourist zoning is necessary to begin with restrictions, as circuit consisting of a plurality of active factors, can not survive if there is at least one limiting factor.
In the geographical literature, theoretical issues of sectoral economic zoning developed enough yet. At the same time, compared to other types of zoning, literature on tourist recreational zoning, there is only a relatively limited number. Nevertheless, now we can talk about more or less complicated attempts taxonomies, hierarchies of territorial recreation systems.
1. Components of the resource potential of the holiday region?
2. Types of tourism?
3. Socio - economic preconditions of tourism development
4. Components of the resource potential of the holiday region?
5. Natural recreational resources and their evaluation.?
6. Socio - economic preconditions of tourism development