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Topic 1. Fundamentals of the theory of tourism. This essential concept in tourism

The purpose of the lectures: learn the basics of the theory of tourism

Keywords: Differentiated, recreation, excursion, holidaymakers, the tourist, recreational migration


1. Definition. Fundamentals of the theory of tourism.

2. Approaches to understanding the essence of tourism

3. Tourism and recreation


Definition. Fundamentals of the theory of tourism. The fundamental concepts of recreational geography are primarily such as free time, leisure, recreation and tourism. "Free time" - a necessary condition for the development of recreation. Leisure time - a dynamic category, which bears the features of a particular age, class and social group; it varies both in volume and content. Free time can not be equated with non-working time, as some researchers, it is only a part of it. Identification of free time away from work is not only not true from a theoretical point of view, but in practice is harmful, for it allows you to search for reserves to increase the free time in the framework of non-working time. After hours is composed of four different functional groups: 1) the time to travel to and from work; 2) the time to meet the natural needs (sleeping, eating, personal hygiene); 3) The time for housework and household needs; 4) The time for the physical and intellectual development, and recreation, which is essentially free time. Thus, the non-working time is divided into compulsory and free of various types of immutable classes.

Leisure time is spent on reconstruction and development of human physical strength, as well as for the overall development of its spiritual forces to meet some social needs. In other words, it is spent on active. At the same time we say that free time - this time meant for recreation. It may seem that "active work" and "leisure" incompatible concepts. However, physiologists study showed that

Best vacation - this is a change from one activity to others. The activities in their spare time is significantly different from all other human activities, as it is important for him not only their results, but also on its own. This is due to the fact that much of the demand is not satisfied as a result, and in the normal course of business.

There are two main functions of free time: 1) the function recuperation man absorbed by the world of work and other immutable classes, and 2) the function of the spiritual (cultural, ideological, aesthetic), and physical development. Recovery function (physiological) include: food, sleep, movement. They serve as a simple recovery of psycho-physiological parameters. Functions of (spiritual and intellectual) include: rehabilitation, cognition, communication (V.M.Krivosheev, 1978).

Based on the foregoing, we can give the following definition of "recreational activities". It is human activity in their spare time, working to restore the physical and mental strength, as well as for its comprehensive development and characterized, in comparison with other areas of activity, the relative diversity of behavior and self-worth of it.

Recreational activities carried out in their spare time, which consists of two parts: 1) or leisure time for rest and 2) time for a more sublime activities.

The division of free time, depending on the nature of its use on a daily, weekly and yearly is important methodologically, as is the basis for studying the structure of recreation and use of free time for recreational purposes. Differentiated so free time can be considered a recreational activity on the frequency and territorial basis. Using the daily free time and casual recreation (rest) are directly related to housing and urban environment and their spatial organization. Weekly recreation depends on the location of suburban recreational facilities. Using the annual free time due to the placement of recreational facilities in the main resort-style. Based on the above differentiation of free time isolated recreation (recreation) within the locality; weekly recreation on weekends ("weekend") - is carried out, usually in a suburban area {local recreation); annual recreation during vacations and holidays (may be intra, national, international (Fig. 2).

Approaches to understanding the essence of tourism. Rest restores, reduces nervous and mental and physical labor of people - and physical stress. According N.S.Mironenko and IT Tverdokhlebov (1981), "rest" in the broadest sense - is any human activity which is not aimed at meeting immediate needs. "Rest acts as a selective form of human life in terms of

physiology, psychology and health. However, the rest is part of the social life of the population, which makes it possible to define it as a social category. Human activities during the holidays can be classified as follows:

1) activities related to the specific physical activity (exercise, walking);

2) amateur activities - hunting, fishing, gathering mushrooms and berries, collection, etc .;

3) introduction to the world of art (theaters, concert halls, art galleries, museums, etc., As well as creativity in the arts - amateur, painting classes, embossing, art sawing and burning and so on.);

4) intellectual activity (self-education, reading, literature, newspaper, magazines, TV shows and other.);

5) with the same interests and free elections;

6) Entertainment, wearing either the active (sports, dance), libopassivny character (visiting circuses);

7) travel for pleasure.

Many of these types of recreation complex manifested in the complex relationship between them, especially while traveling.

The scientific works on geography, sociology and urban planning, along with the concept of vacation, often used terms such as recreation, recreation, recreational process. And this is no accident. At a time when radically changed the nature of work, the structure and form of the use of free time physiology proved that the best vacation - not peace, but a change of activities, the use of these terms has a specific meaning.

In fact, during the heavy predominance of Physical labor free time was used primarily to restore the physical forces in the community. Now, in the daily, weekly and annual cycles of electoral livelihoods are becoming increasingly important forms of use of free time for recreational, educational, sporting, cultural and recreational activities with the greatest efficiency, staying in rest homes, boarding houses and recreation centers, and especially outings, trips, tours and travel. They are characterized by the temporary presence of people outside the place of permanent residence and in need of special areas of different profiles and taxonomic rank that have certain natural, cultural, historical, economic and human resources, and require the creation of a special material and technical base: communications, vehicles, facilities, buildings Accommodation and facilities for temporary and permanent population.

That is the concept of recreation better and better reflects the content of such election of human activity in their spare time.

Recreation is a collection of etymological sense: recreatio (Lat.) - Restoration, recreation (fr.) - Entertainment, recreation, change actions, excluding work and characterizing space associated with these actions. Consequently, the term recreation characterizes not only certain types of electoral life of people in their spare time, but also the space in which they operate.

Hence, "recreation" - a set of phenomena and relationships arising from the use of free time for recreational, educational, sporting, cultural and entertainment activities of people during the daily, weekly and annual life cycles in specialized areas outside of the village, is the site their permanent residence "(N.S.Mironenko, IT Tverdohlebov, 1981).

This definition is reflected not only the property of displacement and migration, but also the totality of the phenomena and relationships associated with the movement and stay of people, including economic activity and all the technical and economic unit for maintenance.

Recreation for its duration can be divided into short-term with the return of the night in their homes and long-term (more than one day) overnight outside the place of permanent residence. Geographically, the short-term recreation, as a rule, limited natural area in a two-hour radius, one pedestrian and transport accessibility, and implementation of long-term recreation geographically is not particularly limited and it is possible in a wide range of functional areas of data localities to global? First scale.

By their nature, long-term recreation coincides with capacious concept as tourism.

Tourism - (from the French word tuorisme - walk journey) - one of the ways of spending free time is a permanent residence. As a rule, tourism - a narrower concept than the rest or recreation. In modern literature, the term "tourism" is commonly understood as a set of relationships and phenomena resulting from the travel and stay of people outside of their permanent place of residence, if the stay does not turn into a long residence or temporary occupation for a living. Thus, under the tourism realize all kinds of recreation associated with the departure of a certain time (24 hours or more) outside the residence. In other words, the concept of tourism is included, the actual tourism (travel route, hiking and overcoming natural obstacles, and so on.) And spa and wellness vacation and travel related to the business and commercial purposes, that is, business trips, etc..

From the above it is not difficult to conclude that the concept of "rest" and "holidaymakers" greater than "tourist" because the first one includes those who spend their free time at home, and the second includes everyone who uses Leisure outside the permanent place of residence, including those who attend a particular area or locality, but do not stay there for the night. Such recreants considered "excursionists".

Tourism and recreation. And what is the tour? "Tour" - a word of Latin origin and means - outing, trip, walking, sightseeing anything objects (cultural monuments, museums, businesses, terrain, etc.), forms and methods of acquiring knowledge.

The concept of "tourism" and "tour" is very closely linked. Trips have become an integral part of the tourist service on almost all routes. Tourists travel by train - on parking it is waiting for a guide; it floats on the boat - and he tells about the places that are found on the highway route. And its independent journey and hike the day off, and at the camp site, and tourist accommodation - all travelers expect tours that make a vacation even more interesting, diverse and inclusive.

Presenting an integral part of almost every tourist trip, sightseeing determine its cognitive value. Their popularity stems from the fact that they provide the necessary information about the sights of places without which every trip, any trip will turn into a boring, little interest event. Guided tours not only provide information on all matters that may be of interest to tourists during the trip or explore a particular locality or attraction, they are a form of cultural work among the population. Excursions operative, they respond at all important, current events in the country in the political, economic and cultural life. Their theme is rich and diverse.

Therefore, if we sum up all the above, it should be noted that of all the activities that can be carried by man in his spare time, the broadest concept is "rest" and it absorbs all the others. Activities include recreational activities that people can engage in both at home and away. Below is the rank of the concept of "recreation" - holiday or a mandatory departure from the place of permanent residence rights. It includes "tourism" and "tour". "Tourism" is - this type of holiday, and the type of recreation ("recreational migration"), to be exact - is the essence of the tourism and recreation. "Tour" can act as a form of recreation and as a form of recreation (in the first case, for example, a tour of his hometown, in the second - in another city); in the latter case, the trip serves as part of tourism. In other words, the concept of recreation wider Toryism, as apart from him, includes the tour, weekend holidays and other types of recreation.

Recreational needs. 'Recreational needs "- the human need for the restoration of health and disability, physical and spiritual strength expended in the process of life. Recreational needs are a system and act on three levels of the organization of human activity: the society-individual group.

"Public recreational needs" - needs of the community in the restoration of health and capacity for work, the comprehensive development of physical and spiritual forces of all its members. They define the structure of recreational facilities, reflected in the forms of its territorial organization.

"Group recreational needs" - reflect the content of the needs of specific socio-demographic, occupational and age groups. A specific group - the family.

"Individual recreational needs" - include the demand for a variety of recreational activities, contributing to the reconstruction and development of human health, relieve fatigue and increase capacity for work, knowledge, spiritual communion personality.

Individual needs affect the structure of the recreational needs of social groups, which are realized through the satisfaction of social needs.

Choosing the type of recreation and leisure geographical area, person or group of people are guided by specific goals, attitudes, inclinations.

Factors affecting the recreational needs:

1. Socio-economic: the level of development of productive forces, the level of production of consumer goods, including services, the level of development of recreation and tourism, the real income of the population, the retail prices of goods and services, including recreational, level of development of transport infrastructure and vehicles, the duration of the holidays, Production of advertising and information about recreational areas and routes, social and professional structure of the population, the level of cultural life, the mobility of the population, national traditions.

2. Demographic factors: the ratio of urban and rural population (the level of urbanization), sex and age structure of the population, the composition and size of the family, especially resettlement.

3. Socio-psychological factors: the intensity of the cultural and business relations (interpersonal skills), a type of cultural life, the influence of fashion, value orientations.

4. Medical and biological factors: the state of health of the population.

5. natural factors: natural area, which is home to people, especially the geographical position in relation to the sea, the mountains, etc.

The development of tourism. One of the most important issues of economic assessment of recreational needs - determine the degree of satisfaction of needs of the population for recreational services at the present stage of economic development. Economic assessment of recreational needs mediates other aspects of assessments (biomedical, sociological and socio-psychological), as it reflected the economic possibilities of society and its members, ie, accounted means that society or its individual members can be spent to meet the recreational needs.

Biomedical recreational needs study is to determine the scope and structure of the spa treatment. On the basis of the regional health statistics developed balneology consolidated balance sheets needs sanatorium treatment and opportunities to meet them.

Sociological and socio-psychological research has focused on the recreational needs of the study dialectical relationship recreational needs of social groups and individuals and the environment. Sociology of leisure studies the recreational needs of social groups, establishing their connection to broader social needs of education and society in general. Social psychology studies the mental requirements for recreational environment inherent in social groups and individuals.

Sociological studies conducted recreational needs comprehensively. They are the following steps:

1) the study of modern trends based on the existing recreation stat.dannyh,

2) development of preliminary provisions related to the maintenance of recreation and prospects of its development,

3) a questionnaire survey of the population,

4) the development of long-term development of hypotheses recreation

5) development of theoretical positions, based on the verification of representative data.


Control questions:

1. What is "tourism"?

2. Types of tourism?

3. List the services of public administration

4. What is a "tourism"?

5. Types of tourism?

6. List service governance



Recommended reading:

1. Fedotov YN Sports tourism. - M., 2002. - 364 p.

2. Birzhakov MB Introduction to Tourism .: Uchebnik.- 7th ed., Rev. and Sub-M.: - St. Petersburg: Nevsk.Fond- ID Gerda, 2004- 448 p.

3. Buzykaev AA Basics tourismology. / Univ "Turan-Astana" .- Astana, 2005.- 22 p.

4. Stone, P. R. (2012). Dark tourism and significant other death: Towards a model of mortality mediation. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(3), 1565-1587

Date: 2016-03-03; view: 2087

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