The purpose of the lectures: To teach students that the tourism industry raises our economy to justify on theoretical and practical approaches
Keywords: nature reserve, landscape,
1. Natural background
2. Socio - economic prerequisites for the development of tourism.
3. Structure services
Natural background. As a sector of the economy and tourism occupation person belongs to the group of industries and labor activities that have a strong resource orientation, showing the similarities with the mining, forestry, fishing and agriculture.
As a consumer area, tourism is second only to agriculture and forestry. The need for recreation in the territory three times higher in the need for residential development, and taking into account the natural parks, reserves and sanctuaries - 6 - 7 times.
Thus, presenting the requirements for significant areas often with untouched nature, tourism has limited its development in developed areas. At the same time, in rural areas it can be successfully combined with agricultural land use. Unacceptable to have recreational areas nearby development of mineral resources, industrial enterprises increased hazard.
Depending on the level of recreational specialization, there are three main types of recreational land use:
1) Areas with high intensity recreation (parks, beaches and other public recreation areas);
2) Areas with an average intensity of recreation (suburban green areas, anti-erosion forests, etc.)
3) Areas with a low proportion of recreation.
Most of the alternative situations of land acquisition related to the second type of recreational land.
Natural resources play a huge role in the choice of resting area recreation and travel. Tourists take into account the peculiarities of the terrain and climate, the richness and diversity of flora and fauna, natural opportunities for sports, hunting, fishing. From how a set of natural resources has a territory depends on the organization forms and types of recreational activities.
As for the formation of large tourist complexes, and for the emergence of a single tourist object important role played by the geographic location of the country or region, ie proximity to the sea, to the mountain and forest areas, convenient location to the main flow of tourists, the most important thoroughfares.
For the development of tourism in general and the tourism sector in particular, considerable importance is the nature of the surfaces of a given territory.
The relief, which is expressed by the difference of height-level drop of water flows and the degree of dissection territory remains the leading element of the natural environment, as it creates a lot of conditions for the phenomena and processes of climate, water, leads to the differentiation of space systems within the limits of the biosphere, and so on. N. In addition, the varied terrain is a very significant advantage of the landscape.
Climatic and environmental stimuli landscape with mountain features are important therapeutic factor in the sense of psycho-physical regeneration, as well as very attractive in terms of active and passive recreation. The active mountain tourism is the biggest advantages: changing environment of contrasting shapes, symmetry and asymmetry, as well as dynamic and static in the landscape; Finally, the need to conquer the peaks and specific items from the vast panorama. During the winter, the existing climate - orographic conditions create opportunities for the development of ski tourism.
The second important element of the natural environment is the climate. Moreover, in addition to the general characteristics of mesoclimate, a major role in the evaluation of life when the territory for recreational purposes has a definition topoklimaticheskih and even features microclimates due to the strong differentiation of spatial conditions.
The highest value from this point of view have clean air, favorable insolation, small fluctuations in temperature and humidity, low frequency of fog, cloudy days, wind protection, and so on. N.
The network of surface water is important both in terms of opportunities for the development of water sports, fishing, swimming in the open air, and from the point of view of the greater attractiveness of the landscape. Favorable hydrological conditions for recreation are expressed primarily in the existence of streams or bodies of water unpolluted, with the appropriate temperature and flow, making it possible to create natural beaches or swimming pools, or standing water and a surface suitable for the cultivation of different kinds of water sports.
Forest cover is also highly influences the development of the tourist function of the area. Also the dignity of pure landscape, it is also important as a biological factor in improving environmental conditions in bioclimate. Enriching the atmosphere with oxygen and ozone, limits the speed of the wind, softens daily and annual amplitudes of temperature. Large forest complexes facilitate turbulent exchange of air masses thereby preventing stagnation that relate to adverse events topoklimaticheskim. Forest cover has, in addition, direct recreational value and delivers a lot of aesthetic pleasure.
Equally important, especially in large areas, it has a certain season of the tourist traffic. There are three tourist season: obscherekreatsionny, swimming and winter.
Season obscherekreatsionny - a period during which you can cultivate this kind of vacation is hiking trips, cycling, motorized tourism, sunbathing, playing outdoors, fishing, hunting, and so on. N. Season this in our climatic conditions last, on average, since March - April to late October. It coincides more or less with the duration of the vegetation period (average daily temperature over 5 0 C). Bathing season - a period that, in principle, is part obscherekreatsionnogo season, but was separated from it, based on the terms of the possibility of departure swimming and water sports in the fresh air. It is closely dependent on the actual current weather conditions. Its duration is limited to water temperatures above 18 0 C, and the average daily temperature exceeding 15 0 C
Season winter - associated with the possibility of departure of winter sports and especially skiing and sledding. Its duration depends on the duration and thicker snow cover that simultaneously linked to the number of days with average daily air temperature is below 0 0C.
There is a very great similarity of origin forms of tourism seasonality.
Socio - economic prerequisites for the development of tourism. On the dynamic development of tourism after the Second World War, the most important role played by existing social economic conditions of the most important of them are: social policy; time free from work; the degree of prosperity of the population; increasing urbanization; the development of culture education; increase in the average duration of human life, and others.
Significant influence its development of modern tourism has a social policy, and especially the establishment of authorities regarding the work on the scale of the day and week. As well as paid holidays, which largely have a decisive importance in the development of modern tourist migrations.
Along with the established work-related poisoning is of considerable importance in the different forms of tourism is held by the authorities in the field of social policy rest.
Growth in the number of free time, which begins to occur in the second half of the nineteenth century and especially intensified in the aftermath of the war, according to many authors decisive influence on the development of the tourist movement in the country or social group. In parallel with the reduction of working time during the year reduced the number of years in the scale of human life. It attributes this to the widespread growing all the time compulsory education in schools, as well as the development of pension legislation. Essential to the development of tourism have the size and the ubiquity of annual paid leave. By the end of 60 - ies in most of the labor holiday nemogli be shorter than two weeks. However, in many countries, even then, this period was increased to three or even four weeks.
Convention of the International Organization of the work in 1970, recognized that the period of annual leave must be at least three weeks.
An important role in the development of tourism and holiday daily rest have the mandatory hours of work during the day and the week.
A very important factor in strengthening the tourist migrations, is the average level of prosperity of the inhabitants of a country or region. Analyses of tourist events show a high correlation between the amount of surplus income of the population of the territory and its participation in the tourism movement. It concerns first of all highly industrialized countries, where the standard of living of society is above the smaller least several times the level achieved in the underdeveloped countries.
The relationship between the level of economic development and the associated level of income, as well as the tourist phenomena is reflected in the so-called degree of tourist activity of the society.
Income of the population, but by means of its tourist activity is closely linked to the social structure of the country's professional.
The ever-increasing demand for tourism services in the world, primarily due to the steady growth of living standards, and increasing the allocation of funds for social security organization of tourist service workers. Due to the increase of free time, which is expressed in a large reduction in the duration of holidays and working days per week, as well as the growing material and cultural level of the population the need for recreational services increases.
During the last decade, as a consequence of the social changes in the needs of society, new forms of tourist service. For example, the rapid growth of the car park, are in the personal use of citizens, called cravings avtoputishestviyam. This paved the way for the construction of motels, campgrounds, service stations Car.
In recent years, I developed another form of recreation where parents spend their holidays with their children. In this regard, during the construction of tourist facilities began to pay attention to the establishment of camps and camp sites holiday especially for families with children.
The impact on the increase of free time is the development of education, education and compulsory education. In many countries, a significant percentage of young people each year has a lot of free time, which is mostly used for tourist travel or weekly rest.
Development of the pension legislation after the war, as well as the increase in life expectancy have intensified significantly older population in the venture tourist travel.
The increasing size and systematically the amount of free time contributed to the fact that he began to make more and more important position in the overall time budget of individuals of society.
1. What is economics?2. Types of tourism?
3. Socio - economic preconditions of tourism development