I 2. What do you think people should do to protect the environment?
Let’s talk about environment. People say that our planet is in danger. Do you share this opinion? 2. What do you think people should do to protect the environment? 3. What would you like to ask your British friend about measures that are taken to protect the environment in Britain? 4. A friend of yours wants to develop a programme to protect the city where he lives. Give him a piece of advice. 5. Green School of the Year contest is held in the country and you want your school to enter it. Give ideas for some ’green events’.
I 1.Let’s talk about environment. People say that our planet is in danger. Do you share this opinion?
See also your student’s book Unit 6 Lessons 1-3
I’d say that “our planet is in danger” is not the opinion, it’s a fact. Among the most urgent problems are the ozone layer, acid rains, global warming, toxic pollution of atmosphere, disappearance of forests, contamination of underground waters by chemical elements, destruction of soil in some areas, threat to some flora and fauna representatives and many others.
One of the most important pollution problems is the oceans. Many ships sail in the ocean water- fishing ships, some ships carrying people, some carrying oil. If a ship loses some of the oil in the water, or waste the water becomes dirty. Many sea birds die because of the polluted water. Many fish are dying in the sea, others are getting contaminated. Fishermen catch contaminated fish which may be sold in markets, and people may get sick from eating them. Lakes and rivers are becoming polluted, too. Some beaches are dangerous for swimming.
Another important problem is air pollution. Cars and factories pollute the air we use. Their car exhaust fumes also destroy the ozone layer which protects the Earth from the dangerous light of the Sun. Aerosols create large “holes” in the ozone layer round the Earth.
A sore subject is that our forests are dying from acid rains. Deforestation, especially destruction of tropical forests, affects the balance of nature in many ways. It kills animals, changes the climate and ecosystem in the world. People’s activity is crowding animals out of their natural habitat.
There are a lot of places on our planet that need immediate help. Our country is not an exception. The nuclear accident at Chernobyl, which took place on April 26, 1986, has seriously aggravated the ecological situation in Belarus. That catastrophe can be considered as the largest disaster of the 20th century. As the result of that accident 18% of territories of our republic were contaminated by radioactive elements. The agriculture of our country suffered great losses. More than 20% of the population has also suffered. A death rate among children has increased considerably. The wide researches are carried out, but health state of the people living in polluted areas, is worsened. The level of thyroid gland cancer has increased, the immunity of children and women is weakened, many diseases appear out only a few years later. Everyone understands that this catastrophe is a threat to health of our nation, and though years have already passed, the results will be shown on the future generations.
I’d like to say a few words about animals in danger of extinction. The blue whale is the largest animal which has ever lived. Once there were over 200000 of these creatures living in the Atlanticand Pacific oceans. Since the seventeenth century they have been hunted for their oil and meat. In fact, so many of them were killed that by 1963 their population had been reduced to just 1000. Today it is even less than that. The African elephant is the world’s largest land animal. Today there are fewer than one million of these animals left. Even though they are now protected, they are still being hunted because of their tusks, which are used to make ornaments and jewellery.
Our planet Earth is only a tiny part of the universe, but nowadays it's the only place where we can live. Until now pollution was not such a serious problem. With the development of overcrowded industrial highly developed cities, which put huge amounts of pollutants into surrounds, the problem has become more and more dangerous. Today our planet is in serious danger. Acid rains, global warming, air and water pollution, and overpopulation are the problems that threaten human lives on the Earth.
Our environment is being more and more polluted with every passing day. There are different types of pollution: air pollution, water pollution, nuclear pollution, even noise pollution.
In order to understand how air pollution affects our body, we must understand exactly what this pollution is. Billions of tons of coal and oil are consumed around the world every year. Factories emit tons of harmful chemicals. These emissions have disastrous consequences for our planet. They are the main reason for the greenhouse effect and acid rains.
Our forests are disappearing because they are cut down or burnt. If this trend continues, one day we won't have enough oxygen to breathe, we won't see a beautiful green forest at all.
Rivers that used to be so beautiful and full of fish are poisoned by industrial waste.The seas are in danger. They are filled with poison: industrial and nuclear wastes, chemical fertilizers and pesticides. It is not always pleasant to bathe in the sea because the water is not blue but brown with rubbish floating in it. Besides, millions of tons of oil are released into the seas every year and a lot of seabirds and animals die because of it. It is dangerous for human beings too.
Every ten minutes one kind of animal, plant or insect dies out forever. If nothing is done about it, one million species that are alive today may soon become extinct. And even greater threats are nuclear power stations. They can cause nuclear pollution as in the case of Chernobyl or Fucusima. Our republic and our Mogilev region in particular have greatly suffered from the after-effects of the Chernobyl disaster. We all know how tragic the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster are.
The ozone holes present a serious problem as well. The ozone layer that protects the Earth from the dangerous ultraviolet rays of the sun is constantly destroyed. The dangerous rays penetrate through the atmosphere and cause skin cancer and other diseases.
The problem of deforestation is also very acute. Deforestation destroys the environmental balance and reduces biodiversity. More and more species of animals and plants are becoming extinct. It also has a big impact on the world climate because the rain forests are natural recyclers, protectors and providers for our planet.
The most dramatic of the environmental issues is, probably, climate change. It is caused by the so-called “greenhouse effect” which is the result of a massive release of carbon dioxide [dai’oksaid] into the atmosphere. When living creatures breathe out and when things are burnt, carbon dioxide enters the atmosphere. Until recently it was absorbed by trees and plants, which converted it back into oxygen. But now factories, power stations and cars are burning more and more coal, oil and natural gas. And the destruction of forests means that there are fewer trees to convert carbon dioxide into oxygen. It acts like the glass in a greenhouse, allowing sunshine and heat to pass in but not out again. As a result we have hotter and drier summers, warmer and wetter winters, more storms and rainfall, extreme weather conditions and raising sea-levels.
Fortunately, it's not too late to solve these problems. We have the time, the money and even the technology to make our planet a better, cleaner and safer place.
You can agree or disagree with someone’s opinion, but you can’t deny facts. They exist whether you like them or not. Our planet is in danger. There is no point in pretending that everything is ok. Ecological situation is worsening every day.
Environment is the nature around us: air, water, trees, flowers, animals, birds and insects. Nature has served people for many years, but people’s interference in nature has increased and the results are dramatic. Nowadays mankind faces numerous problems which threaten our environment. The most serious ecological problems are: noise from cars and buses; destruction of wildlife and countryside beauty; shortage of natural resources; the growth of population; pollution in its many forms.
Computers project that between now and the year of 2030 we are going to have an increase of the average temperature between 2-5 degrees C. sea levels would rise by several metres, flooding coastal areas and ruining vast tracks of farmlands. Water contamination could lead to shortages of safe drinking water. It looks like the end of civilization on the Earth.
Every year the world’s industry pollutes the atmosphere with millions of tons of dust and other harmful substances. The seas and rivers are poisoned with industrial waste. People who live in big cities are badly affected by harmful discharge from plants and city transport and by the increasing noise level which is bad for human health.
Among the most urgent problems are depletion of the ozone layer, acid rains and global warming. Another serious environmental problem is the disappearance of forests.
People understand that the planet needs their immediate help if they want to survive and they take measures to protect nature.
I 2. What do you think people should do to protect the environment?
I believe that environment disasters can be avoided if people broaden ecological education and every person understands that the beauty of nature is extremely fragile and people must obey the unwritten laws of nature.
First of all, they should understand that natural resources are limited and we can’t use them uncontrollably. Nothing can last forever. When you are aware of that you ought to start to do something. You should recycle things and use gas, electricity and water more economically. Green zones around big cities must be protected and extended. You may become a member of any Green party.
People can plant trees and create parks for endangered animals. They can recycle their wastes; persuade enterprises to stop polluting activities. And it is now more than ever apparent that at the same time people are destroying their bodies and their future.
Governments must be prepared to take action against pollution. Air pollution could be reduced if plants and factories were made to fit effective filters on chimneys and car exhausts.
The problem of “holes” in the ozone layer round the Earth could be solved by individual action: stop using ozone-depleting chemicals. However, global action was taken to control the problem. The international convention to stop the production of many ozone-depleting chemicals is one of the best examples.
One more problem, greenhouse warming, can also be solved by individual action – reducing energy use. We could do this by turning off lights, turning down heaters and air conditioners, building more energy efficient buildings, shutting doors. These are all simple actions which everyone must do if we are concerned about our planet, yet not many do so. New technology may help, but lifestyle change can have much more immediate effect.
There is only one way to save wild animals and wild habitats – conservation. That means protecting endangered animals by law, opening more national parks, building fewer new roads, planting more new forests, cutting pollution. If this doesn’t happen, many wild animals will soon have just one habitat- the Zoo.
Everyone should become an ecologically conscious person.
-We should broaden the system of ecological education
-We should be economical with natural recourses (water, gas, oil)
-We should buy and use only ecologically safe products (never use sprays)
- It is advisable to take part in the activities of different ecological organization sand volunteer work: planting trees, picketing …)
-New purifying systems should be fit
- We should be ecologically responsible people: stop littering to prevent air, land and water from being polluted
- We should never do harm to wildlife: stop hunting and killing wild animals
There are many things people can do at home to help nature. They could waste less water by fixing leaky pipes, turning off the taps while brushing their teeth, taking showers instead of baths. People should remember that paper is not garbage and it can be recycled. By recycling of one ton newspapers we save 17 trees. People should buy in bulk so that to eliminate the trash from extra-packing, they should bike more and use public transport.
I strongly believe that we must consume less, recycle more, conserve wildlife and nature, act according to the dictum “think locally, think globally, act locally”.