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Degrees of Assimilation

Considering its degree assimilation can be classified into:

1. COMPLETE

2. INTERMEDIATE

3. PARTIAL

1. Assimilation is termed complete when the articulation of the assimilated phoneme fully coincides with that of the assimilating one, e. g. Does she? /™dVS Si∑||/.

2. Assimilation is termed intermediate when the assimilated phoneme changes into a certain third phoneme, e. g. hand + kerchief = /"h{Nk@tSIf/.

3. Assimilation is termed partial when the assimilated phoneme acquires only some features similar to those of the assimilating phoneme.

 

Types of Partial Assimilation

There are 4 types of partial assimilation. It can affect:

1. the place of articulation

2. the work of the vocal cords

3. the lip-position

4. the manner of producing noise

 

1. Assimilation affecting the place of articulation results in:

a) the dental allophones of the alveolar /t, d, n, l, s, z/ when followed by /T, D/:

shut the door all the doors open the door eighth

hold the door pass the door close the door sixth

 

b) the post-alveolar allophones of the alveolar /t, d, n, l/ when followed by the post-alveolar /r/: try, dry, already.

 

2. Assimilation affecting the work of the vocal cords results in:

a) partially devoiced allophones of /w, l, r, j, m, n/ when preceded by /p, t, k, f, T, s, S/: play, pray, pure, few, threat, friend, quite.

b) looked /k t/, finished /S t/, books /k s/, pipes /p s/.

 

3. Assimilation affecting the lip-position results in labialized allophones of consonants before such phonemes as /w, u:, O:/: twenty, twice, tall, quick, tool.

 

4. Assimilation affecting the manner of producing noise results in:

a) plosionless allophones of /p b, t d, k g/ (loss of plosion); when they follow one another either within a word or at the junction of words the first plosive loses its plosion: actor /k t/, Big Ben /g b/, donít talk /t t/, put down /t d/, eight pounds /t p/.

b) When /p b, t d, k g/ are followed by the fricatives or affricates their plosion becomes fricative (fricative, or incomplete plosion): past five /t f/, temperate zone /t z/, hot summer /t s/.

c) When /p b, t d, k g/ are followed by the nasal sonorants /m, n/ their plosion becomes nasal: garden /d n/.

d) When /p b, t d, k g/ are followed by the lateral sonorant /l/ their plosion becomes lateral: middle /d l/, circle /k l/, good luck /d l/, uncle /k l/, little /t l/.

Note. When /p, t, k/ are preceded by /s/ they lose their aspiration: skate /s k/, steak /s t/, space /s p/.

 

Word Stress

Word stress (word accent) is greater prominence given to one or more syllables in a word.

Stressed and unstressed syllables differ in quantity (length) and quality. They are longer when stressed and carry vowels of full formation. When unstressed, they undergo reduction and become shorter.

Word stress should be considered from the point of view of:

1) its place in a sentence;

2) its degree.

There are two degrees of word stress in English:



1) primary or strong (marked above the syllable);

2) secondary or weak (marked under the syllable).

The place of word stress depends on the quantity of syllables in a word.


Date: 2015-01-02; view: 4278


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