Home Random Page



Full and Reduced Forms

There are some words in English that retain their full forms even when they are unstressed:

1. The following words have no weak forms: ON, WELL, WHAT, THEN.

2. The negative particle ‘not’ is never reduced except when met in contracted forms: can’t, couldn’t etc.: But èwhy not? /nQt/. Of èècourse not. /nQt/

3. Prepositions in sentence-final or sense-group final positions are so slightly reduced that the quantity of short phonemes is not changed; long vowels become half-long,

e. g. "What are you °thinking of? /Qv/ "What have you °done it for? /fO·/

4. “to have” as a principal verb has no weak form though unstressed in affirmative sentences, e. g. I have a °sister. /aI h{v @ °sIst@||/

List of Full and Reduced Forms

Full forms Reduced Forms Full Forms Reduced Forms
Articles Pronouns
The A+C A+V /"Di:/ /"eI/ /"{n/ /D@/+C, /Di/+V /@/ /@n/ you he she we her us them your some that /"ju:/ /"hi:/ /"Si:/ /"wi:/ /"h3:/ /"Vs/ /"Dem/ /"jO:/ /"sVm/ /"D{t/ /ju/ /hi/ /Si/ /wi/ /h3/ /@s/ /D@m/ /jO/ /s@m/ /D@t/
at from of into for to /"{t/ /"frQm/ /"Qv/ /"Intu:/ /"fO:(r)/ /"tu:/ /@t/ /fr@m/ /@v/ /Int@/ /Intu+ V/ /fO/ /t@/ /tu+ V/
Verbs Particles
can /"k{n/ /k@n/ there to /"De@/ /"tu:/ /D@/ /t@/ /tu+ V/
must /"mVst/ /m@st/
shall /"S{l/ /S@l/
do /"du:/ /d@/ /du+V/
does /"dVz/ /d@z/
could /"kUd/ /k@d/
would /"wUd/ /w@d/ Conjunctions
should /"SUd/ /S@d/ and but than as or /"{nd/ /"bVt/ /"D{n/ /"{z/ /"O:/ /@nd/ /b@t/ /D@n/ /@z/ /O/
have /"h{v/ /h@v/
has /"h{z/ /h@z/
had /"h{d/ /h@d/
be /"bi:/ /bi/
been /"bi:n/  
am /"{m/ /@m/
are /"A:/ /A/
was /"wQz/ /w@z/
were /"w3:/ /w@/


Assimilation is a phonetic process by which one sound under the influence of a sound near it acquires some articulation and acoustic likeness to that of other sound.

Assimilation results in the appearance of new phonemic variants. Each case of assimilation must be analysed from the following view points:

1. From the point of view of its direction it can be PROGRESSIVE, REGRESSIVE, RECIPROCAL, or DOUBLE.

2. From the point of view of its degree it can be COMPLETE, PARTIAL, INTERMEDIATE.


Date: 2015-01-02; view: 897

<== previous page | next page ==>
English Monophthongs | Degrees of Assimilation
doclecture.net - lectures - 2014-2020 year. Copyright infringement or personal data (0.002 sec.)