Accented types of words
1. Monosyllabic, disyllabic and trisyllabic words are stressed on the first syllable, e. g. "phoneme, "palate, "prefix, "pronoun, "family, "enemy, "imitate, "colony.
Note 1. In three-syllable words the stressed vowel is mostly read according to the second type of the syllable, e. g. family.
Note 2. In words with inseparable prefixes the stress falls on the syllable next to the prefix: be"gin, pre"pare.
2. Most four-syllable words have the stress laid on the third syllable from the end, e. g. po"litical, ex"periment, hi"storical, ge"ology.
3. Compound nouns are stressed on the first component, the second though unstressed has a vowel of full formation, e. g. "blackboard /-bO:d/.
Exceptions: "arm-°chair, "ice-°cream, "tape-re°corder.
4. Polysyllabic words have the primary stress on the third syllable from the end and the secondary stress on the second pretonic syllable, e. g. %uni"versity, as%simi"lation, %possi"bility.
5. The following groups of words have two primary stresses:
- numerals (from 13 to 19): "four"teen;
- compound adjectives: "well-"known, "good-"looking;
- composite verbs: "get "up, "sit "down, "put "on;
- words with separable prefixes:
a) implying negation: un-, in-, il-, ir-, non-, dis-, e. g. unknown, inaccurate, irregular, non-aggressive, disbelief, illiterate;
b) prefixes implying assistance: sub-, vice-, e.g. subtitle, vice-minister;
c) prefixes with different meanings: mis- - meaning ‘wrong’ (misunderstand); over- - meaning ‘too much’ (overtired); pre- - meaning ‘before’ (pre-revolutionary); inter- - meaning ‘among’, ‘between’ (international); anti- - meaning ‘against’ (antiwar).
Note. Words listed under group 5 undergo variations in stress. In utterances they lose one stress or the other. When they are used attributively, the second stress is lost; when used predicatively, the first stress is lost:
"Fourteen °years. He’s four°teen.||
A "hard-working °boy.|| The "boy is hard-°working.||
A "well-planned °house.|| The "house is well-°planned.||
A "well-bred °man.|| The "man is well-°bred.||
Date: 2015-01-02; view: 2596