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To move on from petty to serious crime

Crime and punishment

Types of crime, criminals and crime verbs

1. crimecriminal

to offendoffenceoffender

culprit= someone who is responsible for doing smth illegal: The police have so far failed to find the culprits.

2. to offend = formal to commit a crime or crimes: Many of the young men here are likely to offend again.

3. offender = someone who is guilty of a crime: At 16, Scott was already a persistent offender (=someone who has been caught several times for committing crimes).

4. robbery / robber / to rob a bank/a person/a tourist col

to hold smb at gun-point

5. theft / thief plural thieves / to steal somebodys wallet/purse BrE/mobile phone/cell phone AmE/ car

6. burglary / burglar / to break into/burgle a house/a home/an apartment col/PHR

7. mugging / mugger / to mug = the crime of attacking somebody violently, or threatening to do so, in order to steal their money, especially in a public place

8. shoplifting / shoplifter / to shoplift

9. smuggling / smuggler / to smuggle

10. kidnapping / kidnapper / to kidnap = to take somebody away illegally and keep them as a prisoner, especially in order to get money or something else for returning them

11. fraud / fraudster / -

12. bribery / - / to bribe = the giving or taking of bribes = a sum of money or something valuable that you give or offer to somebody to persuade them to help you, especially by doing something dishonest

13. murder / murderer / to murder

14. homicide = AmE the crime of murder

15. arson / arsonist / -

16. vandalism / vandal / to vandalize / (to commit) an act of mindless vandalism

To smash windows

To spray graffiti

To deface public property

To vandalise the (school) property

17. looting / looter / to loot

18. terrorism / terrorist / (to commit) an act of terrorism

19. a political prisoner col/term = someone who is sent to prison by their own government because it does not approve of their beliefs or actions

20. a common prisoner col = ordinary, with no special status or rank; negative term

21. a hardened criminal col/wf = showing no regret for their crimes

22. a persistent offender col/wf from to persist | to offend = = a person who continues to commit crimes after they have been caught and punishe

23. a convicted criminal col

24. a former/ex-convict term

25. juvenile delinquency TERM/WFjuvenile delinquent → juvenile delinquency

26. young offender col/wf = a criminal who, according to the law, is not yet an adult but no longer a child: a young offender institution

27. antisocial behavior wf social → antisocial = harmful or annoying to other people, or to society in general

28. to be in trouble with the law

29. to blame smbs background

30. to be caught red-handed = to be caught doing smth wrong

31. underage drinking col/wf ager → underage

32. to breed crime COL



33.

Breaking the law

34. to break the law col = to fail to obey a rule or law

35. to bend the rules idiom = to change the rules to suit a particular person or situation

36. to commit a crime/an offence col

offence = an illegal act

37. petty/serious crime

to move on from petty to serious crime

38. street crime

39. vehicle crime / vehicle theft = the crime of stealing something from a person or place

40. to be involved in repeated crime

41. (to have) a criminal record term = an official list of crimes that someone has committed: We have to check whether applicants have a criminal record.

Protesting against

42. to take to the streets IDIOM

43. to take/resort to industrial action TERM (when workers act in a way that is intended to force an employer to agree to something, especially by stopping work)

to resort to sth PHR= to make use of something, especially something bad, as a means of achieving something, often because there is no other possible solution

44. to protest against/about e.g. (rigid) class distinctions TERM (differences between social groups in terms of their access to power and opportunity in the society)

45. to protest against/about e.g.police harassment TERM (annoying or unpleasant behavior towards someone)

46. to demonstrate against smth / in support of smth e.g. students demonstrating against the war

47. to encounter resistance to sth COL/PREP/WF

48. (the public) to be a force to be reckoned with idiom to be reckoned with = a thing or person that is not to be ignored or underestimated (, )

49. to boil over into sth phr SYN to explode = is a situation or feelings boil over, people cannot control their anger and start to fight or argue: Racial tension finally boiled over in the inner city riots.

50. inner-city unrest TERM (a political situation in which people protest or behave violently / an area near the centre of a large city where a lot of poverty and other social problems exist)

51. riot = a violent protest by a crowd of people

a riot erupts/breaks out col

52. public disorder = violent behaviour of large groups of people

an outbreak of rioting and public disorder

53. to incite crime/racial hatred/violence col = to encourage somebody to do something violent, illegal or unpleasant, especially by making them angry or excited: They were accused of inciting the crowd to violence.

The legal process / Sentencing and punishment

54. to witness a crime col

55. to report sth (a crime) to the police COL/PREP = to tell the police or someone in authority that an accident or crime has happened

56. to carry out an investigation into smth col/prep = to conduct an investigation

57. to collect/gather evidence col

58. to question a suspect/witness col

59. to solve the case col

60. to arrest sb FOR a crime PREP

61. to charge sb WITH a crime COL/PREP = when the police charge sb with a crime, they formally accuse them of committing that crime: Three men were charged with shoplifting.

62. to take sb TO court COL/PREP = take legal action against sb: My landlord is taking me to court for not paying my rent.

63. to give evidence COL= tell a court of law what you know about a crime: Three witnesses of the mugging gave evidence in court today.

64.

65. to appear in court col/prep = to be present in court in order to give evidence or answer a charge

66. to stand/go on trial for smth col/prep =

67. to reach a verdict col

68. to receive a fair trial col

69. to suffer the consequences col

70. to be severely punished col

71. to deserve harsh punishment col

72. to deal with smb firmly PHR/col (e.g. with offenders)

73. to find sb (not) guilty col = responsible for committing a crime: The jury had to decide if he was innocent or guilty.

74. to convict smb OF smth = to decide and state officially in court that somebody is guilty of a crime: They were acquitted of all charges.

75. OPP to acquit smb OF smth = to decide and state officially in court that somebody is not guilty of a crime

76. conviction FOR smth wf/prep = the act of finding somebody guilty of a crime in court; the fact of having been found guilty: She has six previous convictions for theft.

77. to fine sb (£500) = make sb pay money as punishment for a crime they have committed: He was fined £1,000.

78. to pay/face a heavy (=one that costs a lot of money) fine col = a sum of money that must be paid as punishment for breaking a law or rule

79. to send sb TO prison (FOR 10 years) COL/PREP

80. to sentence sb TO (10 years) in prison COL/PREP = when a judge decides what a persons punishment should be after they have been convicted of a crime: The two men were sentenced to six months in prison.

81. to condemn smb to smth e.g. death/public whipping

82. to serve a sentence of 15 years in prison col

83. to face the death penalty col = the punishment of being killed that is used in some countries for very serious crimes

Controlling crime

84. crime rate col/term = a number of crimes committed in a particular area

to rise/to come down

85. to control the crime rate TERM/COL

86. crime figures col have dropped dramatically/have risen

87. crime wave col/term = a situation in which there is a sudden increase in the number of crimes that are committed

88. (to have) a spate of burglaries/killings/thefts = a large number of things, which are usually unpleasant, that happen suddenly within a short period of time

89. to combat/fight/reduce/tackle crime COL=to stop sth unpleasant/harmful from happening

90. fight against smth (e.g. crime) prep

fight FOR smth e.g. survival

91. to take tough measures against crime / to do smth col The government is introducing tougher measures to combat crime.

92. to crack down on crime = to start dealing with smb much more strickly

93. to introduce new/harsher/stricter laws col

94. to give more power to the courts

95. to pass a law col = to accept a law by voting

96. to uphold the law col = to support smth that you think is right and make sure that it continues to exist

97. to enforce the law col = to make sure that a law or rule is obeyed by the people

98. effective law enforcement → to enforce the law COL = to make sure that people obey a particular law or rule

99. to take (draconian) measures col = extremely cruel and severe

100. to focus on juvenile crime prep

101. to put police officers on the streets speaking

102. to act as a deterrent col/prep = a thing that makes somebody less likely to do something (= that deters them)

103. to get somewhere (e.g. to school) safely / safe → safely → safety WF

Individuals can help by

104. to be vigilant (about crime) = to be careful to notice any signs of danger or trouble

105. to introduce neighbourhood watch schemes term = an arrangement by which a group of people in an area watch each other's houses regularly as a way of preventing crime

106. to spot smb doing smth e.g. The police spotted him driving a stolen car.

Law and order

107. law forbids/prohibits col = to state that smth is not allowed, according to a rule, law

108. rule permits/allows col =

109. rules/regulations apply to smb/smth col/prep = to affect or be relevant to a particular person or thing

110. regulations require/stipulate col = to say what is allowed or what is necessary

111. law and order term = safe and peaceful conditions in society that result when people obey the law

the breakdown of law and order

112. to respect the law col

113. to obey/observe the law col = to do what a law say that you must do

114. to follow directions/instructions/orders/rules col

115. to act within the law prep

116. to comply with the order/regulation/requirement/rule col

Economic dimension of well-being/ill-being

Employment/unemployment

117. to close down phr =if a company, shop/store, etc. closes down, or if you close it down, it stops operating as a business

118. to be out of work col/prep

119. lack of sth e.g. employment/money/shelter etc prep

120. your bread-and-butter idiom = smth that provides your main income

Income

121. a means/source of independent livelihood col =something such as your work that provides the money that you need to live

122. to earn/to lose livelihood term/col

123. unemployed/low-income household term = all the people living together in a house or flat/apartment

124. the head of the household col

125. (people) on a low/high income

low-income family

126. (to have) a steady source of income COL/TERM

127. (to live on) inadequate income WF/SP

128. a tight budget: holidays for people on a tight budget

money is tight/things are tight = to have only just enough

129. to live on (or below) the breadline = the lowest level of income on which it is possible to live

130. to live from hand to mouth idiom = to spend all the money you earn on basic needs such as food without being able to save any money

131. to live below the poverty line term = the official level of income that is necessary to be able to buy the basic things you need such as food and clothes and to pay for somewhere to live

132. to live/die in penury fml = the state of being extremely poor

133. to be in a poverty trap TERM (a situation in which someone would be even poorer or not much richer if they had a job because they would no longer receive financial help from the government)

134. to inherit sth (way of life) from sb | an inherited way of life


Date: 2016-01-03; view: 795


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