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Economic consequences of inadequate income

135. the haves noun = people who have enough money and possessions

136. the have-nots noun = people who do not have money and possessions: the division between the haves and the have-nots

137. impoverished people/families/areas/countries wf from poor – poverty – impoverished

138. destitute people / the destitute = without money, food, and the other things necessary for life

139. street children term

140. (to live) (out) on the streets / street idiom =without a home; outside, not in a house or other building

141. Absolute poverty [ an absolute minimum standard] /Relative poverty [ means you are poor in relation to those who around you] / Income poverty [ less than a dollar a day] / Human poverty [ takes into account other factors, such as life expectancy, infant malnutrition, illiteracy and lack of food or clean water] /Inner-city poverty COL/ TERM

142. to claim benefits = financial support from the state: Families who claim benefits often feel ashamed.

Social consequences of inadequate income

143. the widening/wide/deep gulf between sb and sb col/prep

144. to bridge the gap/gulf/divide between sb and sb idiom

145. a dividing line between smth and smth col/prep

146. class disparities between the rich and the poor COL/PREP

147. to be strikingly evident col

148. criminal activity COL

149. educational failure COL/WFto fail → failure | to educate → education →educational

150. unstable relationship COL

151. addiction to drugs/alcohol PREP

152. to be/get addicted to sth PREP

153. to be/feel powerless over your life PREP

154. a feeling/sense of powerlessness WF/COL

155. to be voiceless WF= unable to get your opinions or concerns noticed by people in power

156. fear for the future PREP

157. OPPfreedom of a choice/action col

158. OPPpeace of mind COL = a feeling of being calm, happy, and not worried

159. to suffer from / to reduce / tackle social isolation/exclusion TERM =the state of being alone or lonely: Many unemployed people experience feelings of isolation and depression.

160. (to live) on the margins of sth e.g. society idiom

161. to feel lonely adjective – loneliness noun WF/SP

162. to (not) belong to a community PREP / to feel a sense of belonging COL

163. to reintegrate sb into society sp/wf/prep

164. to manage your life with success

Social Mobility

165. to move up (e.g. the social ladder) PHR

166. to reach the top COL

167. to prosper → prosperous → prosperity wf/spelling

168. to get ahead phr

169. to lag behind phr

170. to reach your full potential COL

171. to face barriers COL

172. insurmountable barrier COL/WF

173. to grow / broaden about the gap between sth and sth COL

174. to pose/present a threat to sth col/prep


175. to combat poverty COL

176. to eradicate poverty COL

177. to alleviate poverty COL

178. to escape poverty COL

179. to lift smb out of poverty prep

180. (to introduce) a minimum wage TERM(the smallest amount of money that an employer is legally allowed to pay a worker)

181. to curb low wages

182. social welfare term =practical or financial help that is provided, often by the government, for people or animals that need it: The state is still the main provider of welfare.

183. social security BrE term= money that the government pays regularly to people who are poor, unemployed, sick, etc: to live on social security

184. (to receive) job seeker’s allowance TERM(money that the government pays to unemployed people who are looking for a job)

185. taxpayer term

186. to pay a tax col

to introduce/levy a tax col

a progressive tax term = a tax system in which people who earn a lot of money pay a larger percentage of their income in tax than people who earn less

187. to fund sb through taxes

188. to place a burden on sb COL/PREP → to carry/ease/reduce/share the burden

189. to send sb back to school COL

190. to set up retraining courses/senior citizens groups/centres TERM/PHR

191. (to offer) tax incentive for/to sb to do sth TERM/PREP

192. to be hit by recession | to be in recession

193. to cut the number of sth/sb prep to cut jobs

194. to decline [ about wages]

195. to postpone retirement term/wf from ‘retire’

196. to face unprecedented competition wf/col

197. stagnant → to stagnate → stagnation wf

198. to stabilize the economy col/wf stable stabilize

199. to stimulate the economy/economic growth col/wf grow → growth

200. public spending col/term = the money that the government pays for projects relating to education, health care, defence etc

201. poor investment in sth col/prep>low-quality public services

202. to pour money into sth phr The government has poured millions into the education system.

203. to improve/provide (strong/dependable) public services = a service such as transport or health care that a government or an official organization provides for people in general in a particular society

204. to provide basic education/healthcare

205. (to provide) adequate food/safe water

206. sanitation term = systems for taking dirty water and waste from homes to ensure good hygiene: A lack of clean water and sanitation were the main problems.


207. shanty town term = an area in or near a town where poor people live in small houses, built of pieces of wood, metal and cardboard

208. cardboard box cities term (an area in a large town or city where people who have no home sleep outside using cardboard boxes to try to keep warm)

Date: 2016-01-03; view: 861

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