1) Gottfried Liebnitz and Isaac Newton developed the mathematics we call calculus at about the same time in the 17th century, although their versions a) were / had been slightly different. However, Newton was sure that he was first and that Leibnitz b) copied/ had copied him.
2) The Wright brothers made the first powered flight in 1903, but only four men and a boy c) saw/ had seen their plane fly. Until Wilbur Wright flew in front of a large crowd in France in 1908, most people refused to believe that their earlier flight d) succeeded/ had succeeded.
3) Shakespeare e) used/had used familiar stories and events from history in a lot of his plays, so the audience f) heard /had heard the plots before. However, that didn't stop him being very successful.
4) Aristotle g) was/ had been a philosopher and teacher in ancient Greece. By the time he died in 322 BC, he h) had written /wrote some of the most famous philosophical texts of all time, and had tutored Alexander the Great.
Read these sentences about Julius Caesar. Then complete the sentences with the past simple or past perfect form of the verbs in brackets.
1) Julius Caesar (come) ..came . from an aristocratic Roman family, though his family was not rich by Roman standards.
2) When he was 15 his father (die) ., and to avoid political problems
in Rome, Caesar (serve) .. as a soldier in the east.
3) By the time he (return) to Rome, he (win) awards for bravery.
4) He (become)................. a member of the Senate, and governor of what is now Spain.
5) By the age of 40 he (rise) ... to the top of the political world, and (form) ..a political alliance with a powerful general, Pompey, and a rich man, Crassus.
6) Between 58 BC and 49 BC he (fight) .a war against the people of what are now France, Belgium, Switzerland and parts of Germany.
7) By the end of this war, according to the historian Plutarch, three million men (die)
8) In 50 BC the Senate (order) .. Caesar to return to Rome. By that time, Crassus was dead and Pompey (become) . Caesar's enemy.
9) In the civil war that followed, Caesar (defeat) ..all his enemies.
10) By the time a group of Roman senators (murder) ....him in 44 BC, he (be) the most powerful man in Rome for only a year.
Read the situations. Use the past perfect continuous form of the correct verb to draw conclusions. Choose between affirmative and negative forms.
· Cry listen do play drink rain eat tell
· Interview wash laugh watch
1) When I got home, Mara wasnt in the living room, but the TV was on.
.She had been watching TV
2) The lights were off, and none of her schoolbooks were around.
3) The Tonight Show was on. The audience was laughing.
Jay Leno .jokes.
4) The window was open, and the floor was a little wet.
5) There was half a sandwich on the coffee table.
Mara ..the sandwich.
6) There was an unopened bottle of soda next of the sandwich.
She the soda.
7) Mara entered the room. There were tears on her face.
At first I thought she ..
8) I was wrong. Mara wasnt upset.
She .. hard at Lenos jokes.
9) There was a stack of clean plates in the kitchen sink.
She .. dishes.
10) Mara could hear the TV from the kitchen.
She to Lenos jokes from the kitchen.
11) The show was almost over. Leno was thanking one of the guests.
He .comedian Margaret Cho.
12) I was surprised that the show was almost over.