9. Make a historic survey. Write an essay on the topic "Russian Prince Kourakin".
Who is Russian Prince Kourakin? What were his relations with Russian monarch of that time? Why was he in France? What was his contribution to foodservice industry and to foreign affairs of the two countries? How did he manage that?
TEXT 2. RESTAURANTS (Part II)
Types of Restaurants
The standard way in which restaurants operate is that customers sit at tables, a waiter comes to take their order, and later brings the food, and the customers pay the bill afterwards. Depending on local custom, a tip of varying proportions of the bill (often 10-20%) is added, which (usually) goes to the staff rather than the restaurant.
Restaurants often specialise in certain types of food. For example, there are seafood restaurants, vegetarian restaurants or ethnic restaurants. Generally speaking, restaurants selling "local" food are simply called restaurants, while restaurants selling food of foreign origin are called accordingly, for example, a Chinese restaurant and a French restaurant.
Depending on local customs and the establishment, restaurants may or may not serve alcoholic beverages. Often, laws governing the sale of alcohol prohibit restaurants from selling alcohol without a meal, because otherwise, such a sale would be an activity for a bar, which are meant to have more severe restrictions. Some restaurants are licensed to serve alcohol ("fully licensed"), and/or permit customers to "bring your own" alcohol (BYO / BYOB).
Restaurant guides list the best places to eat. One of the most famous of these, in Western Europe, is the Michelin series of guides which accord from 1 to 3 stars to restaurants they perceive to be of high culinary merit. Restaurants with stars in the Michelin guide are formal, expensive establishments; in general the more stars awarded, the higher the prices. In the United States, the Mobil Travel Guides and the American Automobile Association rate restaurants on a similar 1 to 5 star (Mobil) or Diamond (AAA) scale. Three, four, and five star ratings are roughly equivalent to the Michelin one, two, and three star ratings while one and two star ratings typically indicate more casual places to eat. The popular Zagat Survey compiles individuals' comments about restaurants but does not pass an "official" critical assessment.
Nearly all major American newspapers employ restaurant critics and publish online dining guides for the cities they serve. American newspaper restaurant critics typically visit dining establishments anonymously and return several times so as to sample the entire menu. Newspaper restaurant guides, therefore, tend to provide the most thorough coverage of various cities' dining options.
In economics, restaurants are the end of the supply chain in the foodservice industry. There is usually too much competition in most cities since barriers to entry are relatively low, which means that for most restaurants, it is hard to make a profit. In most First World industrialized countries, restaurants are heavily regulated to ensure the health and safety of the customers. The typical restaurant owner faces many obstacles to success, including raising initial capital/finding competent and skilled labour, maintaining consistent and excellent food quality, maintaining high standards of safety, and the constant hassle of minimising potential liability for any food poisoning or accidents that may occur. This is why restaurants seem to come and go all the time.