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Elevation of meaningsee amelioration.

Ellipsis— the omission of a word or words considered essential for grammatical completeness but easily understood in the context, e.g. daily (paper), (cut-price) sale, private (soldier), etc.

Emotive charge— a part of the connotational component of meaning evoking or directly expressing emotion, e.g., cf, girl and girlie.

Endocentric compounds— compounds whose two components are clearly the determinant (qualifier) and the determinatum (head-component), i.e. compounds which have the same function as their head members, e.g. spaceship, blackboard.

Etymology— a branch of lexicology dealing with the origin and history of words, especially with the history of form.

Etymological doublet— either of two words of the same language which were derived by different routes from the same basic word, e.g. chase - catch, chieftan - captain, chattels - cattle, disc - dish, shirt -skirt, scar - share, one - an, raid - road, etc.

Euphemism— a word or phrase used to replace an unpleasant word or expression by a conventionally more acceptable one, e.g. to be no more for to die, to tell stories, to distort the facts for to lie, remains for corpse, paying guest for lodger.

Etymological level of analysisis aimed at establishing the etymology (origin) of the word under analysis, i.e. at finding out whether it is a native English word, or a borrowing or a hybrid, e.g. ballet is a French borrowing, threateningly is a native English word, nourishing is a hybrid composed of morphemes of different origin: nourish is a French borrowing, but -big is a native English suffix.

Exocentric compounds— compounds whose determinatum (head-component) is obviously missing — implied and understood but not formally expressed, e.g. ^pickpocket, a killjoy, etc.

Extension (generalization or widening) of meaning— changes of meaning resulting in the application of a word to a wider variety of referents. It includes the change both from concrete to abstract and from specific to general, e.g. journal originally meant daily, a thing

originally meant meeting, decision.


False(or popular, folk) etymology— an attempt to find motivation for a borrowed word, e.g. crayfish (from French ecrevisse), asparagus from sparrow-grass, mushroom from French moucheron, etc.

Familiar quotationscome from literature but by and by they become part and parcel of the language, e.g. to be or not to be, tabula rasa - a blank tablet, ad hoc -for this special purpose, etc.

Form wordsalso called functional words, empty words or auxiliariesare lexical units used only in combination with notional words or in reference to them, e.g. auxiliary verbs — do, be, have, prepositions — in, at, for, conjunctions — while, since, etc.


is speaking about, e.g. Lovely! Awful! Splendid! For ages, heaps of time, floods of tears, a world of good, etc.

Hyponymy— type of paradigmatic relationship when a specific term is included in a generic one, e.g. pup is the hyponym of dog and dog is the hyponym of animal, etc.



Ideographic (relative) synonyms— synonyms denoting different shades of meaning or different degrees of intensity (quality), e.g. large, huge, tremendous; pretty, beautiful, fine; leave, depart, quit, retire; understand, realize, etc.

Idiom— an accepted phrase, word-group, or expression the meaning of which cannot be deduced from the meanings of its components and the way they are put together, e.g. to talk through one's hat, to smell a rat, a white elephant, red tape, etc.

Idiomatic(syn. non-motivated)— lacking motivation from the point of view of one's mother tongue.

Immediate Constituents analysis— cutting of a word into I.C.'s. It is based on a binary principle.

Immediate Constituents (I.C.'s)— the two immediate (maximum) meaningful parts forming a larger linguistic unity, e.g. the I.C.'s of teacher are teach and -er, red and hair and -ed, etc.

Infix— an affix placed within the stem (base), e.g. stand and stood. Infixes are not productive in English.

Indirect borrowings— semantic borrowings and translation-loans.

International words— words borrowed from one language into several others simultaneously or at short intervals one after another, e.g. biology, student, Communism, etc.


Juxtaposition— the way of forming compounds by placing the stems side by side without any linking elements. It is very productive in English, e.g. airline, postman, blue-bell, water-fall, house-keeper, etc.

Juxtapositional compound— a compound whose components are joined together without any linking elements, i.e. by placing one…….




Lexical meaning— the component of meaning proper to the word as a linguistic unit, i.e. recurrent in all the forms of this word and in all the possible distributions of these forms.

Lexical transformation— a paraphrasis of a phrase (sentence) in which some word is replaced by its semantic equivalent or definition, e.g. (he is) an English teacher — (he is) a person who teaches English; (the sky was) cloudy — (the sky was) covered with clouds, etc. see transformation.

Lexicography— a branch of applied lexicology concerned with the theory and practice of compiling dictionaries.

Lexical valency(or valence, collocability)— the aptness of a word to appear in various combinations with other words.

Lexicology— a branch of linguistics dealing with the vocabulary of a language and the properties of words, word-equivalents and word-collocations.

Litotes or understatement— a word or word-group which expresses the affirmative by the negation of its contrary, e.g. not bad for good, not small for great, no coward for brave, etc.

Date: 2016-01-03; view: 1235

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Collocability —see lexical valency. | Loan-wordssee borrowings.
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