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Loan-wordssee borrowings.

Loan-translationsee translation-loan.


Meaning— an essential aspect of any linguistic sign (word) reflecting objective reality in our consciousness. The relation between the object or notion named and the name itself.

Kinds of meaning: abstract, archaic, basic, central, concrete, connotational or connotative, denotational or denotative, derived, differential (in morphemes), direct, distributional (in morphemes), etymological, extended, figurative, functional (in morphemes), grammatical, lexical, lexico grammatical, literal, main, major, marginal, metaphoric, metonymic, minor, obsolete, original, peripheric, secondary, transferred.

Metaphor— transfer of meaning on the basis of a similarity of some sort (in shape, in size, in function, in colour etc.) between the established referent of a word and some new referent, e.g. a stony heart, the head of cabbage, star — a leading actress, etc.

Metonymy— transfer of meaning based on contiguity, i.e. by naming a closely related object or idea, e.g. chair meaning the presiding officer, town meaning the inhabitants of the town.

Morpheme— the smallest linguistic unit possesing meaning (or the minimum meaningful unit of language), e.g. un-luck-i-ly has four morphemes, see root morphemesand affixes.

Morphemic analysis— splitting the word into its constituent morphemes and determining their number and types.

Morphological compound— a compound whose components are joined together with a linking element, e.g. speedometer, handiwork, spokesman, etc.

Morphological composition— the way of forming compounds by joining together two stems with the help of special linking elements: -o-, -/-, -s-, e.g. handicraft, gasometer, sportsman, etc.

Morpheme word —see simple word.

Morphemic level of analysisis aimed at establishing the number and type of the morphemes making up the word, e.g. the adverb threateningly is a polymorphemic word consisting of four morphemes of which one is a root morpheme and three derivational morphemes.

Morphological motivation(of a word or phraseological unit) — a direct connection between the structural (morphological) pattern of the word (or phraseological unit) and its meaning, e.g. fatherless, greatly, thankful, etc.

Motivation— the relationship between the morphemic or phonemic composition of the word and its meaning, e.g. schoolchild, moo, tick, etc.

Motivated (non-idiomatic, transparent)words are characterized by a direct connection between their morphemic or phonemic composition and their meaning, e.g. motor-way, friendship, boom, cuckoo, etc.

Motivated word-groups— are word-groups whose combined lexical meaning can be deduced from the meaning of their component-members, e.g. to declare war, head of an army, to make a bargain, to cut short, to play chess, etc.


Narrowing of meaning(or specialization)— the restriction of the semantic capacity of a word in the course of its historical development, e.g. meat originally meant food, dear originally meant beast, hound originally meant dog, etc.

Neologism— a new word or word equivalent formed according to the productive structural patterns or borrowed from another language; a new meaning of an established word, e.g. dictaphone, travelogue, monoplane, multi-user, pocketphone, sunblock, etc.

Nonce-word— a word coined and used for a single occasion, e.g. Bimburyist (O. Wilde), dimple-making (Th. Hardy), library-grinding (S. Lewis), family-physicianery (J. K. Jerome).

Notionsee concept.


Date: 2016-01-03; view: 862

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Elevation of meaningsee amelioration. | Pejorationsee degradation.
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