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Collocability —see lexical valency.

Collocation— habitual lexico-phraseological association of a word in a language with other particular words in a sentence, e.g., to pay attention to, to meet the demands, cold war, etc.

Colloquial(of words, phrases, style) — belonging to, suitable for, or related to ordinary; not formal or literary conversation, e.g., there you are, you see, here's to us, to have a drink, etc.

Combinability(occurrence - range, collocability, valency) — the ability of linguistic elements to combine in speech.

Complementary distribution— is said to take place when two
linguistic variants cannot appear in the same environment (i.e. they
appear in mutually exclusive environment and stand in alternation with
each other, e.g., variants of the prefix in- (im-, il-, ir-) - are
characterized by complementary distribution as in imperfect, illegal,

Composition —see word-composition.

Compounding —see word-composition.

Compound wordsor compounds— words consisting of at least two stems or root morphemes which occur in the language as free forms, e.g., tradesman, Anglo-Saxon, sister-in-law, honeymoon, passer­by, etc.

Compound-derivative(or derivational compound)aword
formed simultaneously by composition and derivation, e.g., blue-eyed, old-timer, teenager, kind-hearted, etc.


components are structurally and semantically independent and constitute two structural and semantic centres, e.g., actor-manager, fifty-fifty, secretary-stenographer, etc.

Curtailment —see abbreviation, clipping.




Degradation of meaning(also pejoration of meaning)— the

appearance of a derogatory and scornful[emotive charge in the meaning of the word, e.g. knave (OE - boy), silly (OE - happy), boor (OE -farmer).

Demotivation— loss of motivation, when the word loses its ties with another word or words with which it was formerly connected and associated, ceases to be understood as belonging to its original word-family, e.g. lady, breakfast, boatswain, to kidnap, etc.

Denizen(see borrowing)— a borrowed word completely assimilated with the English language, e.g. husband, enemy, battle, etc.

Denominal verb— a verb formed by conversion from a noun or an adjective, e.g., stone - to stone, rat ~ to rat, empty - to empty, nest - to nest, corner - to corner, etc.

Denotational(or denotative) meaning— the component of the lexical meaning which makes communication possible, i.e. the component of meaning signifying or identifying the notion or the object and reflecting some essential features of the notion named; see referential meaning.

Denotation(see referent)— the direct, explicit meaning or reference of a word or term.

Derivation— the process of forming new words by affixes, sound and stress interchange, e.g. work- worker, kind - unkind, food - feed, blood - bleed, life - live, present - present, import - import. Some scholars include conversion into derivation too.

Derivational affix— an affix which serves to form new words, e.g. -less in helpless or dis- in dislike, etc.

Derivational level of analysisis aimed at establishing the derivational history of the word in question, i.e. at establishing through what word building means it is built and what is its structural or word

constituents (l.C.'s and U.C.'s) is very effective on this level, e.g.
threateningly (Adv) falls into the following l.C.'s,
threatening + -ly on the pattern Adj + -ly,

threaten + -ing on the pattern V + -ing, threat + -en on the pattern N + -en, thus the adverb threateningly is a derivative built through affixation in three steps.

Derivational suffix— a suffix serving to form new words, e.g.

readable, helpless, useful, etc. (see: suffix).

Derivative(syn. derived word)— a word formed through'
derivation, e.g. manhood, rewrite, unlike, etc.

Derived stem— a stem (usually a polymorphemic one) built by
means of derivation; a stem comprising one root-morpheme and one or
more derivational affixes, e.g. courageously, singer, tigress, etc.

Date: 2016-01-03; view: 1395

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