Cultural development: the examination system formed a
new class from the local clans who arrived in the capital.
Science and technology from Islamic cultures were lsotransmitted through Yuan. Buddhism also continued to flourish. The handling of porcelain was incredible, they began to use metal font for printing. As for literature, the Korean translated Chinese classics. China's music was also introduced.
.... Cultural exchanges with Song: maintained friendly relations for a long time. They came together to defend against the threats of northern tribes invading. Exchange students and manyChinese citizens became citizens of Koryo, many of them were senior officials.
Trade with Song: Koryo exported gold, silver, ginseng, lacquer
with mother of pearl inlay, plates with floral motif engravings,
etc. and imported silks, medicines and books to Song.
Relations with the northern tribes: With Kitano (Qidan), which
destroyed Parhae and dominated Manchuria, they could not
establish relationships. However, there was exchange of furs and
silver. With Ruzhen (Mohe) they lived scattered throughout
Manchuria, however, by the XII century they became a unified
state called Jin, which threatened Koryo.
Contact with Islam: Arab traders traded there since the time of
Silla, reaching the port of Ulsan, through China. In Koryo, a large
number of Arab merchants went to Pyongnan to develop their
business. These traders brought mercury, corals and Koryo sent
spices, gold and silk. That is why the West came to known Koryo,
which is why the peninsula was renamed Korea
... With the Mongol (Yuan): There was great exchange from goods to marriage. Through this exchange is that Islam came to Koryo, as well as astronomy, mathematics, medicine, etc. They also imported the calendar method Yuan. Metaphysics was also
introduced, so the new educated layer pushed for social reform and cultural renewal. Also, the methods to reproduce cotton and powder were introduced .
With Japan: first stage , ninth to twelfth centuries, relation was limited due to the weakening of the Japanese legal system and the rising military power of local chiefs, the Daimyo. The most sought after objects were the sutras, books ginseng, porcelain for tea ceremony. Second stage, relations deteriorated due to the Mongol attempt to invade Japan.
During Koryo there was trade with other kingdoms like Thailand and Southeast Asia.
The Choson Dynasty was founded in late XIV century ofthe new nobility and the military during the period of crisis and chaos. The founders of the Choson nation's leaders proclaimed Confucianism as their political ideology and implemented various reforms to stabilize the people's welfare and development of a prosperous nationwith a strong army.
XV Century established a system focused on Confucianism and the aristocracy. Implementation of policies for agricultural development and peopleĎswelfare in the economy advances achieved social stability.
We developed a high culture and national spirit.
XVI Century philosophy was widespread. On the otherhand, due to the division and confrontation of the ruling class, weakened national defense. Given the situation, Choson suffered attacks and invasions of the Japanese and Manchu.
...In 1392 foundation of the Choson as a reflection of thehistorical consciousness
of the continuity of tradition.
The capital was established in Seoul. This new dynastystruggled to win popular support.
The main policy of Choson was based on Confucian politics, agricultural economics and diplomacy in favorof the Ming Dynasty in China.
Choson became a Confucian state with a centralized power system around the crown domain, a basic legalcode of the state.
Set the limits of what is now the territory of Korea. On the northern border theirís Yalu and Tumen rivers. Theyalso began a policy of transfer and settlement of people from south to north, it was carried out in anattempt to create balanced regional development.
... It abolished the possession of private armies so toconcentrate power in the king and established the system of general conscription.
Yangban: rulers of civilian and military bureaucrats, who gradually became the ruling class and enjoyed many privileges. Accessed through the civil service examination. Among these, the educated people received preferential treatment compared with the military.
Compulsory work: work mobilized for public works and military (men between 16 and 60)
Agriculture: advanced considerably thanks to the policy focus on agriculture.
Trade and manufacturing, took its time to develop. The state maintained a monopoly on the commodity Thearticles produced were from public companies, where we found the weapons production, typography, ceramics and stationery
...Confucian state policy ideas based on metaphysics(Neo-Confucianism), introduced from China at the end of the Koryo period. Influenced politics, society and education in the country.
The political ideal of this period lay in the realization of a monarchical state.
The ruling class eliminated and changed the traditional folk beliefs and Buddhism.
Cultural Activities: Idu system, based on the soundsand meanings of Chinese characters failed. Therefore, they invented the Hangul, that became the Korean alphabet was proclaimed in 1446. The Hangul issystematic and easy to learn what can be expressed and transcribed any sound of the Korean language. Through this script could create a high-level national culture.
... The collection of books: history (Tonggam Tonggukhistorical record covering the 1400 years since chair
until the last king of Koryo), geography, military(military training guides and history of wars), Confucianism and moral, agriculture (for theimportance given to farmers and agricultural policy).
Developed of observatories: Production of observation (observation) and collection of calculations and measurements (Korean computing systems and Islamic).
Development of science, technology and medicine: medical encyclopedia, invented the first rain gauge in the world (in 1441), were made sundials and water, improved metal type printing in paper production, manufacture of weapons, were refined and manufactured guns and flamethrowers. Also built warships, was created a battleship destroyer ship, reinforced with iron.
... Ming Relations: Choson practiced a policy in favor of good neighborly Ming.
Relations with Japan: Choson managed to overcome and annihilate the Japanese pirates. Subsequently, we attempted a policy of friendly relations, opening of three ports to trade. Later, in the early sixteenth century, due to internal problems, Japan invaded Korea. In 1592, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, with about 200,000 soldiers, invadedthe peninsula and Waer War began. With the support of the Ming Dynasty and a strong civil resistance led to the signing of a treaty.
From 1597 to 1598, Japan invaded Choson again. About 100,000 Koreans were brought to Japan where they were forced into slave labor and students and technicians were forced to teach science and technology to the Japanese.
Relations with the Northern Tribes: When Ming weakened the power of tribes in Manchuria Ruzhen increased (Jin late). In 1627 the invading Ruzhen Choson. Later, late Jin (Manchu) invaded China and founded the Qing dynasty (1644-1912). Qing invaded Choson in 1636. Choson had to agree to submit to Qing control.
... After the wars of Waeran and the Horan (War of theBarbarians or Ruzhen), the Choson Dynasty promotedpolitical, economic and military reforms, to restorestability progressively.
In the XVIII Century, they achieved: social and political stability, industrial development, blooming