The late Bill Shankly, onetime manager of Liverpool, insisted that football wasn’t a matter of life and death – it was more important than that. Looking back at the history of football matches one would tend to agree with him. The history of football, in particular the World Cup, is marked by fights, bad sporting behaviour and even murder. (0)E
The year was 1914 and World War I had transformed much of Western Europe into a mass of battlefields and trenches. The area between the two sides at war was known as “no-man’s-land” because if a soldier left a trench and walked into this area, he would be shot by the enemy. (1) .....
The soldiers put down their weapons, met in the middle and played a game of football. The Scottish Seaforth Highlanders were positioned on the Franco-Belgian border with the enemy, the 9thRoyal Saxon Infantry opposite. They were preparing to celebrate Christmas day. Next to the trenches they had put up simple trees decorated with candles. (2) ..... The Germans did not return the gunfire. The Scots in turn stopped shooting and silence followed. Then the sound of German soldiers singing Silent Night could be heard.
(3) ..... At midnight, silence fell until the next morning when a few of the Saxon Infantry wandered into “no-man’s-land”. The Scots responded and went out to meet them. One report states that cigarettes, watches, rings and tins of meat were exchanged and photos of loved ones were shown.
(4) ..... An unorthodox match of football followed. Goal posts were marked with caps and teams were established. Finally the men shook hands and went back to their trenches and to war. Since then there have been other matches that have made history.
A A few of the British soldiers started singing too, and slowly soldiers up and down both lines began to join in.
B Football has been invaluable in crossing cultural boundaries throughout the years.
C Then a Scotsman produced a football and kicked it to one of the Germans.
D However, one Christmas day, that changed.
E However, one particular incident showed how football can also cross national frontiers and unite people at a time of great disunity.
F The Highlanders reacted to this with gunfire, as they feared it was a trap.
II. USE OF ENGLISH
Read the text and then select the correct answer A, B, C or D
Samuel Langhorne Clemens (1835-1910), better known by the pen name Mark Twain, is best (1) … for his keen social observation and as the author of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. The (2) … became a landmark in the history of American literature.
The book first (3) … in 1885. Although it has been (4) … popular with young readers and taken as a (5) … to the earlier Tom Sawyer, it has also (6) … the attention of serious literary critics. Based in the mid 1800s, the novel often (7) … with deeply rooted attitudes, (8) … racism, of the time.
Immediately after its publication the book became controversial and has remained (9) … up to the present. It has been (10) … from the sections for children of several libraries and removed from reading lists and school programs because of its alleged racism. However, its defenders claim that the (11) … of the book is anti-racist, (12) … to its satirical nature.
Nowadays young people can’t live without their favourite gadgets (mobile phones, MP3 players and computers). Write an essay (100 words) about them. Include the following:
•What they are used for on a daily basis.
•How these inventions changed the life of young people.
•What would the life without these gadgets be like?