Discourse – is a text implemented in reality (includes cultural and personal elements).
Discourse – is sub-style of oral communication. Traditionally, the four types of discourse are argument, narration, description and exposition
Argument is a type of discourse in which the writer or speaker attempts to convince an audience that his or her opinion is correct through logic(includes essays, lectures, sermons and political speeches). In an argument, the writer or speaker begins with a thesis, which is a clear, explicit statement of beliefs or opinions. The writer or speaker must then present evidence to support the thesis. If a listener accepts the evidence, he or she should agree with the thesis.
With narrative discourse, an audience is told a story. The story is designed to make the audience feel differently about a certain topic. Narrative discourse might take the form of a play, novel, folk tale, personal narrative or myth.
In description, something is described based on the five senses. As discourse, description is designed help the audience visualize people and places, but it also can put the audience in a particular mood or create a certain type of atmosphere. Description might be found in a descriptive part of a novel or in a descriptive essay.
Exposition is designed to inform the audience about a topic. There are several different types of exposition, including definition, analysis, compare-and-contrast, problem-and-solution and cause-and-effect. For example, giving someone the definition of a word provides one type of information, whereas comparing and contrasting two differing opinions provides an entirely different type of information.
Also we have media discourse, business discourse, literary discourse, social discourse and argumentative discourse.
Discourse may be understood in a few different ways. For one, it may simply refer to the manner in which individuals and groups communicate. On a deeper level, it may symbolize the systems of thoughts and beliefs that determine how individuals understand and interpret the world.
Media discourse in the first sense would include the various outlets that individuals in the media use, such as newspapers and magazines, television, radio, and the Internet. If media discourse is understand as the beliefs that guide media output, then principles like objectivity or ideological bias might describe media discourse.
Business discourse represents the way companies do business through speech and text. Communication is often a driving force in business; one incorrect message can send a company into a downward spiral. The different methods of business discourse can be meetings or debates, written correspondence, or management theory. Each one has its own place in business, with multiple types often being common. All individuals play a part in the discourse process, though upper management may be among the most common users of this activity.
The different types of literary discourse are transactional, expressive, and poetic. Discourse refers to the way language is manipulated to communicate a certain effect or elicit a specific response. Most fictional forms of literature use poetic discourse, although they may also incorporate the use of expressive discourse in a experiential fashion. Transactional discourse is primarily used in business communication, such as advertising or correspondence.
Social discourse is speech or text communication that involves a social element. The definition of discourse is very broad. The word “discourse” refers to nearly all of the many ways that humans communicate with each other. A social type of discourse is communication that has a social purpose, or some kind of distinctively social aspect.
Argumentative discourse is a specific kind of communication, but one that is often broadly defined. Discourse is defined as the social or public use of written or spoken language, or in other words, communication between two or more parties. Within the general definition of discourse, several different types of discourse apply. These are sometimes also called rhetorical modes, and they fulfill different functions in general discourse.