Explain the nature of the relations between language, speech and communication.
Language is a workable system of signs, that is linguistac forms by means of which people communicate.( L.Bloomfield)L- is the system of signs.(F.de Saussure) Collective body of knowledge, a set of basic elements- sounds,morphemes,words,word-groups.System of phonetical,lexical,grammatical units. Language and speech are inseparable, they form organic unity.Speech is individual.Language is common for all individuals.
Speech1.a. The faculty or act of speaking.b. The faculty or act of expressing or describing thoughts, feelings, or perceptions by the articulation of words.2. Something spoken; an utterance.3. Vocal communication; conversation. Is result of using language.Comprises both:The act of producing utterances and the utterances themselves. The manifestation of language.
Communication.The act of communicating; transmission.The exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, signals, writing, or behavior. Communication is when information is passed from a sender to a recipient using a medium. There are different media that can be used:
§ Visual communication (using mimics or gestures)
§ Communicating with sounds (like human language, but may also be the barking of a dog)
§ Communication using touch
§ Using smell
§ Using writing
Define the pre-linguistic stages of communication.
- Identification of roles;
- Purpose of communication;
- Establishing contact;
- Selection of style.
Define the notion of context and its types.
Context - Communication is affected by the context in which it takes place. This context may be physical, social, chronological or cultural. Every communication proceeds with context. The sender chooses the message to communicate within a context.
Context means the situation or body of information which causes language to be used
Context refers to the words or sentences that surround a particular word, idea or passage which either greatly influence or outright define it
Context is a notion used in the language sciences (linguistics, sociolinguistics, systemic functional linguistics, discourse analysis, pragmatics, semiotics, etc.) in two different ways, namely as
· verbal context
· social context
Verbal context refers to surrounding text or talk of an expression (word, sentence, conversational turn, speech act, etc.). The idea is that verbal context influences the way we understand the expression. Hence the norm not to cite people out of context. Since much contemporary linguistics takes texts, discourses or conversations as its object of analysis, the modern study of verbal context takes place in terms of the analysis of discourse structures and their mutual relationships, for instance the coherence relation between sentences.
Traditionally, in sociolinguistics, social contexts were defined in terms of objective social variables, such as those of class, gender or race. More recently, social contexts tend to be defined in terms of the social identity being construed and displayed in text and talk by language users.
‘Context’ is an all-pervasive concept in pragmatics. For some authors ‘context’ is the defining concept of pragmatics. In Linguistics, ‘context’ commonly means the previous and subsequent linguistic material in a given text. In Kaplan's scheme, the context is objective, it comprises the actual basic facts about an utterance: the speaker, time, place, and possible world in which it occurs. In Stalnaker's scheme, context is basically subjective: a matter of common ground: that is, shared beliefs that serve as common presuppositions for the interpretation of assertions. Often the term is used for anything in the indefinitely large surrounding of an utterance, from the intentions of the speaker to the previous topics of conversation to the object discernible in the environment.
Linguistic context versus extralinguistic context Considering the context of an utterance, one of the most intuitive distinctions is between the context as consisting of its previous and subsequent utterances — the linguistic contexts — and any other extra-linguistic circumstance surrounding the utterance.
Narrow versus broad.Speaker, place and time are on almost everyone's list, as required for the interpretation of ‘I,’ ‘here,’ ‘now’ and tense. In contrast, wide or broad context is understood as all other kinds of information, in particular, information relative to the speaker's communicative intention, used for the interpretation of ‘pragmatic aspects' of the utterance.
Epistemic versus doxastic the epistemic context refers to what speakers know about the world.
Objective versus subjective
Pre-semantic contextprovides information for identifying the utterance: which words in which language with which syntactic structure, and with which meanings are being used.
Semantic context Semantic context comprises those contextual features that determine or partly determine the content of context-sensitive expressions.
Post-semantic context This comprises facts that provide unarticulated content.
(Far-side) Pragmatic Context It comprises those contextual factors needed to get at (calculate, infer) what is communicated or done in and by saying what one says. This importantly concerns the speaker's intentions concerning indirect speech acts, implicatures, and non-literal contents. It may also include institutional facts and indeed, all sorts of other things relevant to the effects of the utterance.