A presuppositionis something the speaker assumes to be the case prior to making an utterance. An entailmentis something that logically follows from what is asserted in the utterance.
1) Existential presupposition:
Entities named by the speaker and assumed to be present : noun phrase and possessive constructions.
noun phrase :"The Cold War has ended"
presupposes that the existence of the entities it refers to, in this case the "Cold War".
possessive constructions :“Tony’s car is new”we can presuppose that Tony exists and that he has a car.
2) Factive presupposition: identified by the presence of some verbs such as "know“, "realize“, “be glad”, “be sorry”, etc.
She didn’t realize he was ill. (>> He was ill)
We regret telling him. (>> We told him)
3) Lexical presupposition: In using one word, the speaker can act as if another meaning will be understood.
You are late again. (>> You were late before.)
4) Structural presupposition: it is the assumption associated with the use of certain structures.
- wh-question constructions.
The listener perceives that the information presented is necessarily true, or intended as true by the speaker.
When did she travel to the USA? ( >> she travelled)
Where did you buy the book? (>> you bought the book)
5) Non- factive presupposition: it is an assumption referred to something that is not true.
For example, verbs like "dream", "imagine" and "pretend" are used with the presupposition that what follows is not true.
I dreamed that I was rich. (>> I was not rich)
6) Counterfactual presupposition: it is the assumption that what is presupposed is not only untrue, but is the opposite of what is true, or contrary to facts.
If you were my daughter, I would not allow you to do this. ( >> you are not my daughter)
If I were rich I would buy a Ferrari. (>> I’m not rich)
Define a dialogue and describe its structure.
Dialogue is a literary and theatrical form consisting of a written or spoken conversational exchange between two or more ("dia" means through or across) people.
Dialogue Structure In each dialogue there are three sections. First you are presented with a topic framing in the form of either a summary, short story, or video. From there you move into your first section described below.
Opening Questions Section
In this section, you will:
· Surface information that is likely to be new.
· Reflect, listen carefully and deepen understanding.
· Express deep convictions and also areas of uncertainty.
· Present yourself and hear your partner in ways that dispel stereotypes and stimulate curiosity and connection.
Questions of Genuine Inquiry Section
In this section, you will:
· Ask questions to learn more about what underlies your partner's point of view.
· Ask for clarification of anything you've heard that isn't entirely clear.
· Understand more about the personal experiences, values, and beliefs that contribute to your partner's point of view.