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Speak about types of presupposition.

A presuppositionis something the speaker assumes to be the case prior to making an utterance. An entailmentis something that logically follows from what is asserted in the utterance.


1) Existential presupposition:

Entities named by the speaker and assumed to be present : noun phrase and possessive constructions.

noun phrase :"The Cold War has ended"

presupposes that the existence of the entities it refers to, in this case the "Cold War".

possessive constructions :“Tony’s car is new”we can presuppose that Tony exists and that he has a car.

2) Factive presupposition: identified by the presence of some verbs such as "know“, "realize“, “be glad”, “be sorry”, etc.

She didn’t realize he was ill. (>> He was ill)

We regret telling him. (>> We told him)

3) Lexical presupposition: In using one word, the speaker can act as if another meaning will be understood.

You are late again. (>> You were late before.)

4) Structural presupposition: it is the assumption associated with the use of certain structures.

- wh-question constructions.

The listener perceives that the information presented is necessarily true, or intended as true by the speaker.

When did she travel to the USA? ( >> she travelled)

Where did you buy the book? (>> you bought the book)

5) Non- factive presupposition: it is an assumption referred to something that is not true.

For example, verbs like "dream", "imagine" and "pretend" are used with the presupposition that what follows is not true.

I dreamed that I was rich. (>> I was not rich)

6) Counterfactual presupposition: it is the assumption that what is presupposed is not only untrue, but is the opposite of what is true, or contrary to facts.

If you were my daughter, I would not allow you to do this. ( >> you are not my daughter)

If I were rich I would buy a Ferrari. (>> I’m not rich)

Define a dialogue and describe its structure.

Dialogue is a literary and theatrical form consisting of a written or spoken conversational exchange between two or more ("dia" means through or across) people.

Dialogue Structure
In each dialogue there are three sections. First you are presented with a topic framing in the form of either a summary, short story, or video. From there you move into your first section described below.

Opening Questions Section

In this section, you will:

· Surface information that is likely to be new.

· Reflect, listen carefully and deepen understanding.

· Express deep convictions and also areas of uncertainty.

· Present yourself and hear your partner in ways that dispel stereotypes and stimulate curiosity and connection.

Questions of Genuine Inquiry Section

In this section, you will:

· Ask questions to learn more about what underlies your partner's point of view.

· Ask for clarification of anything you've heard that isn't entirely clear.

· Understand more about the personal experiences, values, and beliefs that contribute to your partner's point of view.

Date: 2015-12-18; view: 1222

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