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What varieties are distinguished in translation?

translation is di­vided into written translation (or simply translation) and oral (or inter­pretation).

Interpretation, in its turn, is traditionally divided into consecutive in­terpretation and simultaneous interpretation

Written translation is also divided into several sub-categories de­pending on the genre of the text being translated, such as literary transla­tion (fiction, poetry and publicistic texts), translation of official docu­ments, etc.


2. Are translation approaches and devices similar in different transla­tion varieties?

all translation varieties use similar approaches and translation devices. Both in written translation and dur­ing the interpretation the translator (interpreter) may use either trans­formational or denotative approach.40


3. What are the principle differences between consecutive and simulta­neous interpretation?

In consecutive interpretation the interpretation follows the source utterance, whereas simultaneous interpretation is performed simultaneously with the original speech.

This time lag of the interpreter relative to the speaker is the main distinction of consecutive interpretation, which determines the peculiari­ties of the approach and translation devices used by the interpreter


4. What are chuchotage and at-sight interpretation?

Chuchotage and at-sight in­terpretation are commonly regarded as alternatives of consecutive inter­pretation despite minor differences in physical procedures.

Chuchotage and at-sight interpretation are two specific alternatives of consecutive interpretation proper. During chuchotage the interpreter speaks in low voice, almost whispers so that only the interpretation user can hear. This interpretation alternative is rather hard for the interpreter who has to control the pitch of his or her voice. As concerns the ap­proach it is similar to that used in standard consecutive interpretation.

At-sight interpretation is another variety of consecutive interpreta­tion. The difference is that the interpreter reads a written text in a source language rather than listening to the speaker as in ordinary consecutive interpretation. However, there is a peculiarity of this interpretation vari­ety which, unfortunately, is often overlooked.



5. Describe differences in working environments of a translator and interpreter?

A translator has at hand dictionaries and reference materials and, as a rule, observes no spe­cific time limits for the work; translation may be self-edited and redone if so required.

An interpreter is entirely self-dependent and cannot rely on any out­side help: mistakes, slips of tongue are immediately noticeable and derate the translation. In other words, the interpretation and translation tasks are equally hard, but different as different are the required skills and training methods discussed below in the lectures that follow.


Lecture 13.

Date: 2014-12-29; view: 1669

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