Transformation is any change of the source text at the syntactic level during translation.
2. What types of transformations do you know?
Regular syntactic and occasional tranformations
3. What is an occasional transformation? Give examples.
occasional, i. e. the translator transforms the source syntactic structures on case-by-case basis, each case being dependent on the context, situation, pragmatic intent and many other factors some of which are unknown and the translator's decisions relevant to the ease are often intuitive.
4. What regular transformations are typical for English-Ukrainian translation?
Verb Tenses, Noun Numbers and Cases, Adjectives, Pronouns etc.
5. Which type of transformations presents major translation problems and why?
English Verbal Complexes, Gerund, Pluralia and Singularia Tantum, Gender Forms, Sequence of Tenses
1. What are the basic translation devices?
basic translators' devices:
• omission and
• antonymous translation;
2. What is partitioning and integration? Define them and give examples. Describe transposition as a variety of inner partitioning
Partitioning is either replacing in translation of a source sentence by two or more target ones or converting a simple source sentence into a compound or complex target one.
Integration is the opposite of partitioning, it implies combining two or (seldom) more source sentences into one target sentence.
Transposition is a peculiar variety of inner partitioning in translation meaning a change in the order of the target sentence syntactic elements (Subject, Predicate, Object, etc.) as compared with that of the source sentence dictated either by peculiarities of the target language syntax or by the communication intent
3. What is replacement? Define it. What are the basic types of replacements in practical translation? Give examples.
Replacement is any change in the target text at the morphological, lexical and syntactic levels of the language when the elements of certain source paradigms are replaced by different elements of target paradigms36
The following basic types of replacements are observed in English-Ukrainian translation:
1. Replacement of Noun Number and Verb Tense and Voice Paradigms, e. g. replacing Singular Form by Plural and vice versa; replacement of Active Voice by Passive; replacement of Future by Present, Past by Present, etc.
2. Replacement of Parts of Speech (the most common is replacing Ukrainian Nouns by English Verbs when translating into English /see in more detail below/; common enough is the replacement of English 'Nomina agentis' /drinker, sleeper, etc./ by Ukrainian Verbs).
3. Replacement in translation of a negative statement by an affirmative
one is an efficient device called antonymous translation. It is a means of text compression extensively used in interpretation and discussed in more detail elsewhere in this Manual (viz. Lecture 15 Interpretation: Professional Skills and Training)
4. What is addition? Give definition and examples.
Addition in translation is a device intended for the compensation of structural elements implicitly present in the source text or paradigm forms missing in the target language
5. What is omission? Give examples of Ukrainian-English translation
Omission is reduction of the elements of the source text considered redundant from the viewpoint of the target language structural patterns and stylistics