What are the distinctive features of literary translation?
In literary translation the translator is to render the images of the source text rather than only facts like in other translation and interpretation varieties
2. What is hypertext? Define it. Give examples of hypertext allusions and associations.
Hypertext is the collective meaning of a literary text comprising all associations and allusions acquired by the words and word combinations of this text in their previous usage
These associations and allusions may be acquired when words and word combinations were used in other texts: books, popular songs, sayings, films, etc
3. Can a translator render the whole of the source hypertext? If not, then what part of the hypertext is lost?
It is hardly possible and desirable to give a universal prescription for hypertext substitutions in translation - the grounds of the choice are unique in each case.
Moreover, because of the unique cultural background of each nation a large share of the source hypertext is lost in translation.43
4. What is the attitude of the target language audience to a piece of literary translation?
Literary translation should be recognized by the target language speakers as a literary text in their native language
5. What is to be taken into account in translation of dialogues?
In literary translation of dialogues the translator should take exact account of the speakers' character and situation of the dialogue. This information determines the style of translation.
1. What are the peculiarities of the English language system which are to be taken into account in Ukrainian-English translation?
Of numerous peculiarities of the system of English the following three are, perhaps, the most important for translation into this language.
1. Definite (pre-determined) order of words in a sentence.
2. Predominantly verbal style of expression.
3. Analytical way of expressing semantic and syntactic relations between words (by positioning rather than by prepositions and case forms).
2. What are the most important changes of the source text in Ukrainian-English translation?
When translating from Ukrainian into English the translator is:
♦ to change the word order in the source sentences in accord with the English syntax;
♦ to change the source text style into predominantly verbal and
♦ to express the syntactic and semantic relations between nouns by their proper positioning.
3. What is the optimal approach in Ukrainian-English translation?
in order to convey the source text content in an optimal way one should translate it using the phrasing common to and easily understood by the target audience. The best way to do this provides a combination of denotative approach (interpretation of the content) and transformational scheme (transforming Ukrainian phrases into standard English expressions).
4. Why is it desirable to use standard (clicheed) expressions when translating into a foreign language.
The use of standard (clicheed) phrases in translation into English is desirable since they are repeatedly tested by native speakers and carry with them correct associations and allusions.
A non-native speaking translator simply may not know the hypertext underlying the equivalents and only standard language cliches (to a certain extent!) guarantee proper choice of equivalents with relevant connotations.