What are the basic elements of the relationship between a language and extralinguistic world?
The relation of language to the extralinguistic world involves three basic sets of elements: language signs, mental concepts and denotata
2. What is a language sign, a concept and a denotatum? Give definitions. Show the relation between them?
The language sign is a sequence of sounds (in spoken language) or symbols (in written language) which is associated with a single concept in the minds of speakers of that or another language.
The mental concept is an array of mental images and associations related to a particular part of the extralinguistic world (both really existing and imaginary), on the one hand, and connected with a particular language sign, on the other.
The denotata are parts of the extralinguistic world (not necessarily material or physically really existing)
The relation between a language sign (word or word combination) and the fragment of the real world it denotes is indirect and intermediated by the mental concept. the mental concept of a given language sign is usually rather broad and complex, consisting of a lexical meaning or meanings, a grammatical meaning or meanings, connotations and associations the mental concept of a word (and word combination) is almost never precisely outlined and may be different even in the minds of different speakers of the same language, not to mention the speakers of different languages.
3. What is a lexical meaning, a connotation and an association? Give definitions and examples.
a lexical meaning is the general mental concept corresponding to a word or a combination of words.
A connotation is an additional, contrastive value of the basic usually designative function of the lexical meaning.
An association is a more or less regular connection established between the given and other mental concepts in the minds of the language speakers.
4. What is the range of application of a word? Give examples.
The peculiarities of conceptual fragmentation of the world by the language speakers are manifested by the range of application of the lexical meanings (reflected in limitations in the combination of words and stylistic peculiarities).
5. What are the main sources of translation ambiguity stemming from the sign-concept relationship?
polysemantic nature of the language signs, the range of application of the lexical meanings, the concepts being strongly subjective and largely different in different languages for similar denotata
Date: 2014-12-29; view: 1897