Hollywood dubbing: The German Bruce Willis and other invisible stars
Waiting for Winter Olympics of 2014 – preconditions for researches in influence of Olympics constructing on the water flow and river regime.
Maria Kolesnikova, EGEA Moscow, Lomonosov Moscow State University
The Black Sea coast region is an object of special interest of Russian and foreign scientific society for the last time because of Winter Olympic Games – 2014 in Greater Sochi. Construction of the Olympics objects strongly influences on environment of natural geosystems and its parts. Water environment is an important part of these geosystems too. The main objective of this research were rivers from the Black Sea basin in Russian and Abkhazian territory. Forming of these rivers’ flow depends on many factors, both zonal and azonal. The average long-term discharge and water flow of the rivers is under great influence of many factors, including mean height of the catchment and stream order.
For the better valuation how preparations to the Winter Olympic Games influence on the water bodies, it’s necessary to learn common features of water flow forming for rivers of this region in the period before the beginning of the Olympics constructing. The connections which were found create preconditions for researches in influence of Olympics constructing on the water flow and river regime.
WATER INFLOW, AVERAGE WATER DISCHARGE, THE NOTH CAUCASUS REGION HYDROLOGY, THE BIG SOCHI REGION
Because of Winter Olympic Games - 2014 the Greater Sochi region became the field of interests for many people, including scientists and of course geographers. Human activity always causes changes in nature. Constructing of Olympic buildings can be the reason of the really big changes. That’s why the region situated close to building area should be studied more. From the beginning of time when the first hydrological measurements were made till the time constructing of Olympic buildings was ready to be started we had almost undamaged nature in this region. So, to find out differences caused by Olympics first we need to make a research about the past of this region. In the current case – about the Water flow of North Caucasus rivers along Black sea coast before the beginning of Olympics’ changings of the environment.
The region has an amount of special features due to natural borders. The nature there is really rich with different types of environment. Mountain chains help to defend the territory from the cold air masses from the north. Also because of westerlies from the warm Black sea cyclonic air masses come which creates high thermal condition.
In the north-west part of territory catchment areas have features usual for the prairie-steppe and in the south-east part for the subtropics climate zone. By the reason of special relief components vertical differentiation and wide variety of climatic conditions take place (Surface-water resources of USSR. Hydrologicalscrutiny., 1966).
In the research, average long-term data array with information on all the gauging station along the explored territory. For every river in section line of gauging station streams’ orders were defined according to method of Scheidegger, using the equation N = log2(P) + 1, P – number of streams with length less than 10 km (Scheidegger A.E., 1961.). Besides the stream orders catchment area and mean height of catchment can be used as predictors. All the relations were constructed in MS Excel.
The main object with assessment of average long-term discharges data is the valid chose of representational period. Used data from gauging stations can have different length of observation. For the stations with extended period of observation differential-integral curves should be constructed. For the gauging-stations which has not really long period of measurement long-term discharge can be found using differential-integral curve of analogue-station with the longest observation period and with the highest correlation rates.
For the maximum and minimum water discharges probability curves were constructed using the software (“StokStat 1.1”, SF VNIIpriroda, Levikin U. V., 2000).
Results and discussion
From all data available 18 gauging stations with observation time at least 20 years (Government water cadaster. Long-termdataofregimeandland surface-water sources.,1987; Surface-water resources of USSR.Common hydrological characteristics., 1965, 1974, 1979)
Data of average, maximum and minimum water discharges were processed. Used data from each of 18 gauging stations have different length of observation: from 20 to 80 years.For the 18 stations with extended period of observation differential-integral curves were constructed. Finally, for 12 stations with more than 25 years of observation smoothing of data were done over whole time period. For the other 6 stations smoothing of data was done in a different way – using differential-integral curve of analogue-station with the longest observation period and with correlation rate no less than 0,7.Finally, for all 18 gauging stations average long-term water discharges were assessed. Resulted average relative discharge of flow demonstrate relation with mean height of catchment.
Fig. 1 “Relation between relative discharge and mean height of the catchment”, 2013, author’s own.
For the better spatial analysis all the average relative discharges were transformed to the 500 meters height with an equation M500 = M – 26,1*ln(Hav/500) and mapped.
Fig.2. “Average relative discharge reduced to the height of 500 meters”, 2013, author’s own.
It makes possible to recognize the flow increase from the north-west to the south-east along the Black Sea coastal line. It happens because of more water saturation of atmospheric masses in this direction. The same tendency precipitationshave.
There was set a relation between long-term average discharges and stream orders.
Fig.3. “Relation between average discharges and streams’ orders”, 2013, author’s own.
There is an exponential equation for this
Q0 = 0,049*e0,76*N.
Deviations of actual discharge from the counted with help of this equality one don’t show any connection with height of catchment or spatial regularity. It means that factors which influence on water flow increase influence on the stream order either. It should be said that the relation is homogeneous for the whole territory despite it is situated in different natural environment.
Also attention was paid to the maximum and minimum water discharges. For them probability curves were constructed and then discharges with probability 10% and 90% were determined.
As for factors which influence on the maximum and minimal discharges, maximum relative discharges decrease with the increasing of the catchment area which is explained by reduction of maximum flow. Relation can be written with the help of polynomial equationÌ200 = Ì*(200/F)-0,837 and it can be transformed to a form for 200 km2 catchment area. Then these data were analyzed. Results were shown on the map.
Fig.4. ”Maximum relative discharge for F = 200 km2 ”, 2013, author’s own.
Maximal values of maximum discharge modulus are situated in the north-west area of the catchment. Moving south-east, they are reduced with minimal value in the mountain area of Mzimta catchment. An interesting relation was found out – in the north-west areas, where average long-term relative discharges were minimal maximum relative discharges reach their maximum value. In the south-east area there is an opposite relation.
It happens because of the type of the flow pattern. If we compare discharge records of different rivers – it’s clear that in the north-west area annual discharge disposal is connected with rare floods when singular water discharges go beyond low flow values.
Fig.5. ”The types of intra-year flow pattern, River Vulan – vil. Arhipo-Osipovka”, 2013, author’s own.
In the south-east area flood periods can be distinguished. Floods happen more often but less intensive.
Fig.6. “The types of intra-year flow pattern, River Sochi – vil. Plastunka”, 2013, author’s own.
So excess of maximum discharges to average here is not so large.
Using minimum water discharge changes the territory can be divided into the same two parts either.
Fig. 7.”Minimal flow”, 2013, author’s own.
In the both areas minimum discharge modulus with 90% probability are increasing with the increasing mean height of the catchment. But due to high-altitude zone influence in the south-east are it happens faster than in north-west. Ceteris paribus minimum relative discharge in the north-west area is less than in the south-east. Also as well as maximum discharges, it can be explained with the type of intra-year discharge disposal.
The research was made in order to find more information to use it for further work on this region. It’s relevant because of upcoming Olympic Winter Games and changes in nature caused by them. It influences on everything including hydrological characteristics like average water discharges, relative water discharges, maximum and minimum water discharges and relations between water flow and predictors – stream order, catchment area and mean height of catchment. That’s why this research is strongly needed to determine further changes.
The author wishes to thankPHD Senior Lecture, Alexey Kosizkiy for his support for this research.
Surface-water resources of USSR.Hydrologicalscrutiny.Leningrad, Hydrometeoizdat., 1966.
Scheidegger A.E. Theoretical geomorphology.Berlin.Springer, 1961.333 pp.
Government water cadaster.Long-termdataofregimeandland surface-water sources.Leningrad, Hydrometeoizdat., 1987.
Surface-water resources of USSR.Common hydrological characteristics.Leningrad, Hydrometeoizdat., 1965, 1974, 1979.
Hollywood dubbing: The German Bruce Willis and other invisible stars
While the concept of dubbing movies is alien to many British and American cinemagoers, it still remains de rigueur in many parts of Europe. The regular voice artists who dub for the likes of Bruce Willis or Tom Cruise can become stars themselves, writes Ross Davies.
Maybe it's as a cultural consequence of the myriad kung fu films spawned in the 1970s and 1980s, but it's easy for a Briton or American to think of dubbing as a kind of amateurish cottage industry, replete with inaccurate dialogue and risible out-of-synch diction.
Imagine watching a European art house film, for instance, only to have your ears met with the voice of, say, Danny Dyer. For most people it would present a jarring asymmetry. An audio-visual lopsidedness, if you will.
After all, the reason Britons and Americans often watch foreign films - apart from to flex our culture vulture credentials in front of friends and colleagues - is for the exoticism of viewing another culture in action.
Language, in its original context, plays a huge part of that experience.
With Michael Haneke's Amour up for best picture at this weekend's Oscars, it would appear that many of us cinephiles, who happen to list English as our mother tongue, are still more than happy with the standard conduit of subtitles.
The goal is that the audience thinks that Daniel Craig actually speaks German”
DietmarWunder German voice of James Bond
Yet, on the continent, the dubbing of foreign films is still very common. And the voice actors, who may "do" one or multiple actors, are recognised as celebrities in their own right.
But just how does one become a dubber?
For the last seven years, DietmarWunder has been the official "voice" of Daniel Craig in the revamped James Bond canon. Like many other voice artists, he is a trained actor who inadvertently stumbled into the industry.
"I was actually doing some theatre when a colleague of mine, who happened to be a dubbing director, gave me my first role as stuttering student in Happy Days. Initially, it was pretty challenging but I haven't looked back since."
Wunder's enthusiasm for his profession isn't surprising. It has afforded him a comfortable lifestyle, including a red carpet welcome at last year's German premiere of Skyfall.
He is quick to stress that dubbing is more than just simply reading off a script in a studio.
"You need to really follow the performance of the actor on the screen to remain believable," he says. "That means mimicking his movements so that they become your own. The goal is that the audience thinks that Daniel Craig actually speaks German."
DietmarWunder is the voice of Daniel Craig in the German trailer for Skyfall
Like Wunder, Luca Biagini was a theatre actor before he entered a dubbing set in Italy which dates back to the days of Mussolini when foreign films had to be re-voiced in Italian.
In the last 30 years, he has dubbed everyone from John Malkovich and Harrison Ford to Downton Abbey's Hugh Bonneville.
In 2010, he also lent his intonation to the Italian version of The King's Speech, doubling up for Colin Firth's Oscar-winning turn as George VI.
Effecting and synchronising a stutter was particularly challenging, says Biagini.
"It's a role that is close to my heart, but it wasn't easy. The aim was to recreate the voice without the viewer being aware of any synchronisation - a bit like magic or an illusion. Having the guidance of an intelligent director also helped."
The dubbing process is a lot more complex than many would imagine.
The interpretation often requires a cabal of translators, adaptors, actors and a specialist dubbing director. It's a rigorous process, says Italian actress Lisa Genovese.
Currently residing in London, Genovese started out her career as an assistant to director Mario Maldesi, the self-styled doyen of Italian dubbing, notably cherry-picked by Stanley Kubrick to synchronise the dialogue from his 1972 film A Clockwork Orange.
"He was amazing , a maestro , but he could be hard work," she explains. "I remember he once called in this actress to do a very tiny part, but she ended up having to recite her lines twenty times before Mario was satisfied. Wealllearnedsomuchfromhim."
Luca Biagini provides the voice of Colin Firth in The King's Speech - but do they sound similar?
While Biagini and Genovese speak romantically of the artistry required to be successful voice actor, Manfred Lehmann is less effusive.
The German "voice" of Bruce Willis for the last 25 years, he doesn't mince his words when asked what he enjoys most about his job.
"I enjoy the money. It pays the bills."
Armed with a sonorous voice that exudes hard-boiled machismo, it's easy to understand why Lehmann has been cast as the vocal accompaniment to a string of action heroes over his career, including Mickey Rourke, Dolph Lundgren and Steven Seagal, among others.
However, for his home audience, Lehman is inextricably linked to Willis - himself born to a German mother.
When we speak on the phone, he has just finished recording his lines for A Good Day to Die Hard. So, has he ever met his cinematic counterpart?
"About ten years ago," he answers. "I found him to be a pretty nice guy, although we only exchanged pleasantries. I asked him whether he had ever heard my version of him."
One of these men set hearts aflutter as Mr Darcy in Pride and Prejudice
But dubbers have been known to receive recognition and gratitude.
After winning an Oscar in 1998 for his performance in Good Will Hunting, Robin Williams sent his usual German dubbing voice, Peer Augustinski, a note which read: "Thank you for making me famous in Germany."
Biagini has also crossed paths with his matching parts.
"I met Richard Dreyfuss after we had done Mr Holland's Opus and he dubbed me for a joke. I also met Willem Dafoe , who was really gentle and quite reserved. Wegotonwell.
"There was also talk that Hugh Laurie personally selected me as his voice double in House, but I don't know about that - you'll have to ask him."
Not all countries choose rerecording over subtitles.
Brave was dubbed into Icelandic - spoken with Scottish accents
While ubiquitous in Germany and Italy, as well as Spain and France, in Nordic countries, where good English is widely spoken, dubbing only tends to be found across a few children's television programmes.
The argument against subtitles, according to Lehmann, is that "they are a visual distraction, deflecting attention from the film".
Yet, a recent article published in the Italian daily newspaper La Repubblica reported a growing demand among the public for original language films, citing the influence of increased online streaming, television channels with multilingual options and a greater knowledge of English among the younger generation.
However, Genovese is sceptical of a U-turn happening in the near future.
"I am not sure that Italian audiences are ready for films with subtitles," she says. "You have to remember there is a long-standing tradition of dubbing that people are used to. I can't see it being uprooted anytime soon."
"Sure, the audience now has the chance to see a film in its original language, but it is quite elite. The general public still prefers dubbing - for my sake, I hope it does."