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EXERCISE 2. Fill in the gaps with the correct prefix from the following list.


auto de dec inter
maxi mega micro mini
mono multi semi sub


1. Most people prefer a colour screen to a ______ chrome screen.

2. _____script is a character or symbol written below and to the right of a number or letter, often used in science.

3. A ____byte equals approximately one million bytes.

4. Once you finish your program, you will have to test it and ______bug it to remove all the mistakes.

5. The introduction of _____conductor technology revolutionized the computer industry.

6. If a computer system has two or more central processors which are under
common control, it is called a ________processor system.

7. The _____imal system is a number system with a base of 10.

8. When the user and the computer are in active communication on a graphics
system, we refer to this as ______active graphics.


Word formation: Suffixes

We have already seen how prefixes can change the meaning of a word. Let us now consider some suffixes, their usual meanings, and how they change the meanings of English words.

Nouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs
-ance -ence -or/-er -ist -ness   -ize -ate -fy -en -ify -able -ible -less -ic -ical -ish -ive -ly  


Noun-forming suffixes

suffix meaning example
-ance state performance
-ence quality of independence
-er / -or a person who a thing which programmer, operator, compiler, accumulator
-ist / -yst a person who analyst, typist
-ian pertaining to electrician
-tion / -ation the act of compilation
-ness condition of readiness
-ion action/state conversion
-ing activity multiplexing
-ment state/action measurement
-ity state/quality electricity
-ism condition/state magnetism
-dom domain/condition freedom
-ship condition/state relationship, partnership


Verb-forming suffixes

suffix meaning example
-ize/ -ise   to make computerize
-ate automate, activate, calculate
-ify simplify
-en harden, widen

Adverb-forming suffix

suffix meaning example
-ly In the manner of Electronically, logically, comparably

Adjective-forming suffixes

suffix meaning example
-al   having the quality of computational, logical
-ar circular
-ic magnetic, automatic
-ical electrical
-able capable of being comparable
-ible divisible
-ous like, full of dangerous
-ful characterized by helpful
-less without careless
-ish like yellowish
-ed   having the quality of computed
-ive interactive

Note: Words ending in -ing are formed from verbs. The -ing form may be used as a noun, part of a noun phrase, or part of a verb.


Programming is an interesting job. (noun)

Programming in C is interesting, (part of noun phrase)

He is working as a programmer, (part of verb)


EXERCISE 1. Read the following sentences and circle the suffixes. Underline the stem if it can be used on its own. The first one has been done for you.

1. A programmer designs, writes, and tests programs for performing various tasks on a computer.

2. A systems analyst studies organizational systems and decides what action needs to be taken to maximize efficiency.

3. Software developers are producing increasingly sophisticated applications for a growing global market.

4. Turning your office into a paperless environment may be expensive at the beginning but produce big savings in the long run.

Date: 2015-12-11; view: 4037

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