1 The new regulations will been announced in September.
2 Dî they have their dogs walking every day?
3 She has the piano tune twice à year.
4 The letters are bå posted first thing tomorrow morning.
5 When Mr Cobert arrived at the office, he realised his computer has båån stolen.
6 The photographs will already båån developed.
7 It's worth having the car servicing.
8 She is expects to win the November election.
9 They are having their garage painted when I called.
10 Your teeth is bå cheeked every six months.
INFINITIVE / - ING FORM / PARTICIPLES: Level B
Tenses of the Infinitive
Tenses of the - ing form
(to) be offered
(to) be offering
(to) have offered
(to) have been offered
having been offered
(to) have been offering
· The Present Infinitive refers to the present or future.
I’d liketo go for a walk.
· The Present Continuous Infinitive is used with appear, claim, happen, pretend, seem, must, can’t, should, would etc to describe an action happening now.
He mustbe working in the garden now.
· The Perfect Infinitive is used with appear, happen, pretend, seem etc to show that the action of the infinitive happened before the action of the verb.
He claims to have met the Queen. (First he met the Queen, then he claimed he had met her.)
It is also used with modal verbs should, would etc.
· The Perfect Continuous Infinitive is used with appear, seem, pretend etc to put emphasis on the duration of the action of the infinitive, which happened before the action of the verb.
She looks tired. She seems to have been working all morning.
It is also used with modal verbs.
· The Present Gerund( - ing form) refers to the present or future.
She enjoys dancing.
· The Perfect Gerund ( - ing form) shows that the action of the gerund has happened before the action of the verb. We can use the Present Gerund instead of the Perfect Gerund without a difference in meaning.
He denied having stolen the money. OR He denied stealing the money.
The -to- infinitive is used :
1. to express purpose
She went out to buy some milk.
2. after certain verbs (advise, agree, appear, decide, expect, hope, promise, refuse etc)
He promised to be back at 10 o clock.
3. after certain adjectives (angry, happy, glad etc)
She was glad to see him.
4. after question words (where, how, what, who, which, BUT not after “why”)
Has she told you where to meet them?
But: I don’t know why he left so early.
5. after: would like/ would love/ would prefer (to express specific preference)
I’d love to go for a walk.
6. after nouns
It’s a pleasure to work with you.
7. after too/enough constructions
He is too short to reach the top shelf.
He isn’t tall enough to reach the top shelf.
8. with it + be + adjective (+ of + object)
It was nice of him to remember my birthday.
9. with “only” to express unsatisfactory result
He called me only to say that he would be late.
The infinitive without -to- is used:
1. after modal verbs (must, can, will etc)
You must be back at 12 o clock.
2. after: had better/ would rather
I’d rather have stayed in last night.
3. after: make/let/see/ hear/feel + object
Mum letme watch TV. I madehim apologise.
BUT: in the passive form: be made/ be heard/ be seen + to-infinitive
He was made to apologise.
Note: help is followed by a -to-infinitive or an infinitive without -to-
She helped me (to) wash the dishes.
The -ing form is used:
1. as a noun
Eating vegetables is good for your health.
2. after certain verbs (admit (to), avoid, consider, continue, delay, deny, enjoy, escape, excuse, fancy, finish, forgive, imagine, involve, keep (=continue), look forward to, mention mind, miss, object to, postpone, practice, prevent, report, resist, risk, save, stand, suggest, understand etc)
Note: like + to infinitive = it’s a good idea; it’s useful
I like to eat a healthy breakfast. (specific preference)
4. after: I’m busy, it’s no use, it’s (no) good, it’s (not) worth, what’s the use of, can’t help, there’s no point in, can’t stand, be/get used to, be/get accustomed to, have difficulty (in)
It’s no use complaining.
5. after “go” for physical activities
They go skiing every winter.
6. after: spend/waste time
He wasted his time playing video games.
7. after prepositions
He entered without knocking at the door.
8. after: see, hear, listen, watch to express an incomplete action, an action in progress or a long action
I saw Kate painting the kitchen. (I saw Kate in the middle of painting.)
BUT: see, hear, listen, watch + infinitive without -to- – to express a complete action, something that one saw or heard from beginning to end.
I watched Kate paint the kitchen. I took her two hours. (I saw the whole action from beginning to end.)
NOTE: If two infinitives are joined by “and”, the -to- of the second infinitive can be omitted.
I want to eat something and havea rest.
Verbs taking -to- infinitive or –ing form without a change in meaning
1.begin, start, continue + to –inf. or –ing form
However, we never have two –ing forms together
She began dancing/ to danceBut: It’s beginning to get cold.Not: It’s beginning getting cold.
2. advise, allow, permit, recommend, encourage when followed by an object or in passive form take a to-infinitive
They take the –ing form when not followed by an object.
He doesn’t allow us to smoke here.They aren’t allowed to smoke here.They don’t allow smoking here.
3.It needs/It requires/It wants + -ing form
“it needs” can also be followed by a passive infinitive.
The house needs/requires/wants painting.The car needs repairing/to be repaired.
Verbs taking to- infinitive or –ing form with a change in meaning
1.forget + to- inf = not remember
I’m sorry, I forgot to buy milk.
forget + ing form = forget a past event
He’ll never forget flying over the Alps
6.try + to –inf = do one’s best, attempt
The fireman are trying to put out the fire.
try + -ing form = do sth as an experiment
Why don’t you try adding some sugar to the sauce? It might taste better.
2.remember + to –inf = remember to do sth
Remember to turn off the cooker before leaving.
remember + -ing form = recall a past event
I don’t remember staying in this hotel before.
7.want + to –inf = wish
I want to spend my holidays in Spain.
want + -ing form = need sth done
This room wants painting again.
3.go on + to –inf = finish doing sth and start doing sth else;
After finishing the report, she went on to type some letters.
go on + -ing form = continue
She went on Talking for hours.
8. stop + to –inf = pause temporarily
She stopped to get some petrol before continuing on her journey to Leeds.
stop + -ing form = finish; end
Stop talking, please!
4.mean + to –inf = intend to
He means to find a job abroad.
mean + -ing form = involve
Finding a job means attending many interviews.
9.be sorry + to –inf = regret
I’m sorry to hear they fired him.
be sorry for + -ing form = apologise
I’m sorry for being/having been unfair to you.
5.regret + to –inf = be sorry to
I regret to tell you that there is no money in your account.
regret + -ing form = have second thoughts about sth one has already done
I regret buying/having bought this dress; it doesn’t look nice on me.
10. be afraid + to –inf = the subject is too frightened to do sth)
I’m afraid to climb up that tree. (I don’t want to do it.)
be afraid of + -ing form = the subject is afraid that what is described by the -ing form may happen)
She won’t climb up the tree; she is afraid of falling. (She is afraid because she might fall.)