3. A: I'm going to a lecture tonight. Do you want to come?
B: No thanks. I'm not interested/interestingin the subject.
4. A: Did you hurt yourself when you fell?
B: No, but it was very embarrassed/embarrassing.
5. A: Shall I turn off the lights?
B: No. I'm frightened/frighteningof the dark.
6. A: Was Mother upset when you broke her vase?
B: Not really, but she was very annoyed/annoying.
7. A: How do you feel today?
B: I still feel very tired/tiring.
8. A: Ihaven't seen Mr Green for several days.
B: Neither have I. It's a bit worried/worrying.
EXERCISE 3. Rewrite the sentences using participles.
Example: He was lying on the bed and he was reading a book.
...He was lying on the bed reading a book.
a) Lisa took a deep breath and dived into the water.
b) Jack burnt his finger while he was lighting a fire.
c) After Ann had ironed the clothes, she put them away.
d) Because he was cold, James turned on the heater.
e) The photographs, which were taken at the recep≠tion, were blurred.
f) Alison washed the paintbrushes before she painted the living room.
g) She was sitting on the sofa and she was knitting a jumper.
h) The girl who is sitting next to Alison is Vicky.
i) Because he had forgotten to do the shopping, he ate out that night.
MODAL VERBS: Level B
The modal verbs are: can, could, may, might, must, ought to, will, would, shall, should, have to (has to), need (needs).
Modal verbs are used to express: ability, possibility, probability, logical assumptions, permission, requests, offers, suggestions, advice, criticism, obligation, prohibition or necessity.
Can / be able to
(ability in the present/future)
Ann can type fast.
I will be able to pay you next week.
Could/ was able to (=managed to Ė ability in the past) ďCouldĒ is more usual than ďwas able toĒ.
I could / was able to go on a trip round the city last week.
May/might/ could + present infinitive (perhaps; itís possible that something will happen in the future or perhaps it is true at the moment)
May/might/ could + perfect infinitive
(perhaps something happened in the past)
Could + perfect infinitive is used for sth which was possible but didnít actually happen.
Sam may/might/could pass his test this time.(Itís possible that he will pass the test.)She looks miserable. She may/might /could have lost her job.(Perhaps she has lost her job.)Donít drive so fast! You could have killedthat man. (Luckily, you didnít kill this man.)
Ought to/ should + present infinitive show that something is probable now or in the future
Ought to/ should + perfect infinitive show that something to happen but we donít know if it happened or not
Tom ought to/ should pass his exams. (He will probably pass.)Has Nancy phoned yet? She ought to/ should have phoned an hour ago. (We donít know whether she phoned or not.)
Canít/ couldnít + present infinitive
(I donít think; itís logically improbable)
Must + present infinitive (I think, Iím fairly sure; itís logically probable)
canít is opposite of must
canít/ couldnít + perfect infinitive (Itís impossible that something happened in the past)
must + perfect infinitive (Itís very probable that something happened in the past.)
She canítbe rich. Her house is too small. (I donít think sheís rich.)His face is red He mustbe very angry.(I think he is very angry.)It canítbe true. It mustbe a lie.She canít / couldnít have lost her way; she must have missed the train. (= I donít think sheís lost her way; I think she has missed the train.)
To express possibility in questions we donít use may. We use: Can he? Could he? Is he likely to? Is it likely that? Might he? (Is it possible that?)
(asking for permission)
can (informal) could (more polite)
may (formal) might (more formal)
Can/Could I interrupt you for a second?
May/Might I speak to the manager?
(giving or refusing permission)
can (informal; giving permission)
may (formal; giving permission Ė also used in written notices or formal announcements)
mustnít/ canít (informal Ė refusing permission)
may not (formal Ė refusing permission)
Can I use your phone? Ė Of course you can. (informal)
Could I use your phone? Ė Of course you can.(not: of course you could)
May I use your phone? Certainly you may. (formal)
Luggage maybe left here (written notice)Iím afraid you canít/mustnít enter the room.Rubbish may not be left here. (written notice)
(talking about permission)
can/ be allowed to (to talk about the future and present)
could (to talk about the past Ėused for repeated actions)
was/ were allowed to (to talk about the past Ė used for repeated or single actions)
couldnít/ wasnít allowed to (in negations or questions for either repeated or single actions)
Pupils are allowed to / can use the school swimming pool free of charge.She was always allowed to/ could always play with her dolls after school. (repeated actions)The reporter was allowed to (not: could) take a photo of the pop singer. (single action)The foreigner wasnít allowed to/ couldnítenter the country without a visa. (single action)
REQUESTS Ė OFFERS - SUGGESTIONS
Requests (asking someone to do sth)
Can you? (informal request)
Will you? (familiar)
Could you? (polite request)
May I? (formal request)
Would you/ would you mind? (more polite and formal than ďcould youĒ)
Can you help me, please?
Will you get me my glasses, please?
Could you make me some tea?
May I have a glass of water? (request)
May I open the window?(asking for permission)
Would you post this letter for me?
Would you mind typing this letters for me?
Offers (offering to do sth)
Iíll (Iím willing to do sth - informal)
Shall I/we / Can I/we (Do you want me/us to//? - informal)
Would you like/ Would you like me to.?
Iíll do the shopping if you like.
Shall I help you with your luggage?
Would you like some more tea?
Suggestions (making suggestions)
We also express suggestions with:
Letís? How about/ Why donít we?/ What about?
Shall we go to the theatre?
We can / could go to the club if you like.
Letís go to the park. How about going to the park
ADVICE Ė CRITICISM
Advice (saying what the best thing to do is)
should/ ought to + present infinitive
(ought to is sometimes used for advice based on laws, rules or generally accepted ideas)
Shall I? (asking for advice)
had better (advice for a specific situation)
You shouldstop smoking. (general advice)You ought to treat animals kindly.(Most people believe this.)
Shall I tell him the truth?
Youíd better call your parents or theyíll worry.
Criticism (saying what the best thing to do in the past was)
should/ ought to + perfect infinitive
You shouldnít have been rude to her yesterday. (but you were)You should have locked the car before leaving. (but you didnít)
NECESSITY Ė OBLIGATION Ė PROHIBITION
Must/have to (itís necessary, Iím obliged to)
Must is used only in the present and future when the speaker decides.
Have to is used when the necessity comes from the outside the speaker or when others decide for him.
Have got to (more informal and usual than ďhave toĒ) is used for obligation on a single occasion.
Ought to (duty; Itís the right thing to do but people donít always do it.)
Need (itís necessary) is followed by a passive full infinitive or an Ėing form and takes Ės in the 3rd person singular in statements.
I must lose some weight. (I say so.)I had to go to work early yesterday. (ďMustĒ is not possible here as it is used only in the present.)I have to lose some weight. (The doctor says so; the doctor decides for me.)Iíve got totidy my room; Mother is angry.Iíve got to phone her; sheíll be worried.We ought to respect the environment.(but we donít always do it.)Your hair needs to be cut. orYour hair needscutting.
Must is used only for the present and future situations. Have to forms its questions and negations with do/ does and did.
Did you have to stay late at work yesterday? Yes. I had to type some urgent letters.
Absence of necessity
Neednít + bare present infinitive / donít have to/ donít need to (it is not necessary in the present or future)
Didnít need to/didnít have to (it wasnít necessary in the past and we may not know if the action happened or not.)
Neednít + bare perfect infinitive (We know that something happened in the past although it was not necessary.)
You neednít take a jacket. Itís rather warm.You donít have to/ donít need to take a jacket. Ití rather warm.He didnít need/ have to buy any milk. There was a lot in the fridge. (I donít know if he bought any.)She neednít have bought any milk. There was a lot in the fridge (I know she bought some milk but there was no need.)
EXERCISE1. Fill the spaces with can, could and shall/will be able. Comment on the usage.
1. Öyou stand on your head? Ė I Ö when I was at school but I Ö now. 2. When Iíve passed my driving test IÖ hire a car from our local garage. 3. At the end of the month the Post Office will send him an enormous telephone bill which he Ö pay. 4. I Ö remember the address. Ė You Ö even remember the street. (negative) 5. When the fog lifts we Ö see where we are. 6. Youíve put too much in your rucksack; you never Ö carry all that. 7. When I was a child I Ö understand adults, and now that Iím an adult I Ö understand children. (negative) 8. When you have taken your degree you Ö put letters after your name?
EXERCISE 2. Fill the spaces with must, have to, may, might, could or canít, as in the example. Comment on the usage.
1.Perhaps Bill will work late tonight. Ė Bill may/might work late tonight. 2. Itís possible that Mary is trying to call us. Ė Mary Ö . 3. The studentís are obliged to finish the test in one hour. Ė The students Ö . 4. It is possible that Mum is working in the garden. Ė Mum Ö . 5. Iím sure Tom is hungry. Ė Tom Ö . 6. Perhaps Dad will take us out to dinner. Ė Dad Ö . 7. Iím sure Jane hasnít reached the station yet. Ė Jane Ö . 8. Itís likely that they have gone to the supermarket. Ė They Ö .