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The principle philosophical categories.

The following 5 pages are in this category, out of 5 total. The Categories a text from Aristotle's Organon that enumerates all the possible kinds of things that can be the subject or the predicate of a proposition. They are "perhaps the single most heavily discussed of all Aristotelian notions".

The work is brief enough to be divided, not into books as is usual with Aristotle's works, but into fifteen chapters.The Categories places every object of human apprehension under one of ten categories (known to medieval writers as the Latin term praedicamenta). Aristotle intended them to enumerate everything that can be expressed without composition or structure, thus anything that can be either the subject or the predicate of a proposition.

Charles Sanders Peirce, who eventually founded Pragmatism, presented a paper entitled "On a New List of Categories" to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. In Aristotle's logic, categories are adjuncts to reasoning that are designed to resolve equivocations, ambiguities that make expressions or signs recalcitrant to being ruled by logic. Categories help the reasoner to render signs ready for the application of logical laws.

In Kant's philosophy, a category is a pure concept of the understanding. A Kantian category is a characteristic of the appearance of any object in general, before it has been experienced. Kant wrote that "They are concepts of an object in general…." Kant also wrote that, "…pure cîncepts of the undårstanding…apply to objects of intuition in general…." Such a category is not a classificatory division, as the word is commonly used. It is, instead, the condition of the possibility of objects in general, that is, objects as such, any and all objects, not specific objects in particular.

In metaphysics (in particular, ontology), the different kinds or ways of being are called categories of being or simply categories. To investigate the categories of being is to determine the most fundamental and the broadest classes of entities. A distinction between such categories, in making the categories or applying them, is called an ontological distinction.

 

The term Stoic categories refers to Stoic ideas regarding categories of being: the most fundamental classes of being for all things. The Stoics believed there were four categories (substance, quality, disposition, relative disposition) which were the ultimate divisions. Since we do not now possess even a single complete work by Zeno of Citium, Cleanthes or Chrysippus what we do know must be pieced together from a number of sources: doxographies and the works of other philosophers who discuss the Stoics for their own purposes.

The main ideas of Epicureanism.

According to Epicurus, in the universe there are only bodies in space. They are directly perceived by the senses, and the presence of empty space between the bodies from the fact that otherwise would be impossible movement. Epicurus proposed the idea, very different from the interpretation of the atoms of Democritus. This idea of ​​the "deviations" of atoms, where the atoms are moving in "connected stream". This fear Epicurus regarded as the main obstacle to human happiness. From the fear of the gods, he tried to save his students, saying that the gods, although there are, live "between worlds" in some intermediate space, and it does not interfere with the lives of mortals. And in order to help overcome the fear of death, he repeated: "Death is nothing to us: that disintegrated, the insensitive and what is not sensitive, then we have nothing." "When we are - explain the philosophy -that death is not, and when death comes, then we no longer have."




Date: 2015-12-11; view: 588


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