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The ideas of objective idealism in Plato's philosophy.

Material cause describes the material out of which something is composed.

The formal cause is its form the arrangement of that matter. The formal cause is the idea existing in the first place as exemplar in the mind of the sculptor, and in the second place as intrinsic, determining cause, embodied in the matter.

The efficient cause is "the primary source", or that from which the change under consideration proceeds.

The final cause is its purpose, or that for the sake of which a thing exists or is done, including both purposeful and instrumental actions and activities. The final cause or teleos is the purpose or function that something is supposed to serve.

3. Augustine was an early Christian theologian whose writings were very influential in the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy. Augustine took the view that everything in the universe was created simultaneously by God, and not in seven calendar days. He argued that the six-day structure of creation presented in the book of Genesis represents a logical framework, rather than the passage of time in a physical way — it would bear a spiritual, rather than physical. God created matter and invested it in various forms, properties and destinations, there by created all things in our world. Acts of God is good, and thus all things, just because it exists, are good. Evil is not a substance - matter, but the disadvantage of its damage, defect and damage oblivion. The world exists thanks to the continuous creation of God who regenerates all dying in the world. World of single and multiple worlds cannot be. Matter is characterized by a view, measure, number and order. In the world order everything has its place. Past - this memory, the present - contemplation future - wait or hope.

 

 

EXAM QUESTION #10

1. Plato was a Greek classical philosopher, mathematician, student of Socrates, writer of philosophical dialogues and founded of the Academy in Athens. Plato’s philosophical views had many societal implications, especially on the idea of an ideal state or government:

Productive: represents the abdomen (workers) - the laborers, carpenters, plumbers, masons, farmers.

Protective: represents the chest (warriors) - those who are adventurous, strong and brave, in the armed forces.

Governing: represents the head (rules of philosopher king) those who are intelligent, rational, in love with wisdom, will suited to make decisions for the community.

Philosopher has to moderate love of wisdom and the courage to act according to wisdom. Wisdom is knowledge about the God or the right relations between all that exists.

2. Epicurus was an ancient Greek philosopher as well as the founder of the school of philosophy called Epicureanism. Only a few fragments and letters of Epicurus' 300 written works remain. For Epicurus, the purpose of philosophy was to attain the happy, tranquil life, characterized by peace and freedom from fear—and the absence of pain—and by living a self-sufficient life surrounded by friends. He taught that pleasure and pain are the measures of what is good and evil; death is the end of both body and soul and should therefore not be feared; the gods neither reward nor punish humans; the universe is infinite and eternal; and events in the world are ultimately based on the motions and interactions of atoms moving in empty space. Epicurus' philosophy is based on the theory that all good and bad derive from the sensations of what he defined as pleasure and pain: What is good is what is pleasurable, and what is bad is what is painful.



3. Thomas Aquinas was influential philosopher and theologian in the tradition of scholasticism. Proof from necessary being.

The third argument, from necessary being, considered the fact that all of the objects that we see around us exist only as a matter of possibility. According to Aquinas possible objects do not contain the explanation of their existence within themselves. Thus, possible object A relies for its existence on possible object B, which in turn rests on possible object C. But we cannot have simultaneously long sequences of possible objects. There must be some necessary being- whose existence is explained by it- God.

 

EXAM QUESTION #11

1. To reach this point, the philosopher-king will have progressed through many stages of education. By the time he is 18 years he study elementary mathematics, music. At the age of 20 a few he will select and purpose and advanced course in mathematics. At the age 30 a live year course in dialectic and moral philosophy can begin. The next 15 years would be spent gathering practical experience through public service. Finally, at age 50, the ablest people would reach the highest level of knowledge, the vision of the Good and would be then be ready for the task of governing the state.

2. Aristotle was a Greek philosopher born in Stagirus in 384 BCE. His father, Nicomachus, died when Aristotle was a child and he lived under a guardian's care. At the age of eighteen, he joined Plato’s Academy in Athens and remained until the age of thirty-seven, around 347 BCE. His writings cover many subjects, including physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, government, ethics, biology, and zoology. Aristotle's writings were the first to create a comprehensive system of Western philosophy, encompassing ethics, aesthetics, logic, science, politics, and metaphysics. Shortly after Plato died Aristotle left Athens. With the request of Philip of Macedonia he became a tutor for Alexander in 356-323 BCE. After Alexander conquered Athens, Aristotle returned to Athens and set up a school of his own, known as the Lyceum. After Alexander's death, Athens rebelled against Macedonian rule, and Aristotle's political situation became precarious. To avoid being put to death, he fled to the island of Euboea, where he died soon after. Aristotle is said to have written 150 philosophical treatises. The 30 that survive touch on an enormous range of philosophical problems, from biology and physics to morals to aesthetics to politics. Many, however, are thought to be "lecture notes" instead of complete, polished treatises, and a few may not be the work of Aristotle but of members of his school. Where Aristotle differed most sharply from medieval and modern thinkers was in his belief that the universe had never had a beginning and would never end; it was eternal. Change, to Aristotle, was cyclical: water, for instance, might evaporate from the sea and rain down again, and rivers might come into existence and then perish, but overall conditions would never change.

3. Machiavelli gave the rules or principles of effective political behavior. Machiavelli writes of the Roman Republic. He writes about absolute monarchy, the moral decay in Italy at that time. Machiavelli thought that people are evil. He found corruption at political and religious government. He believed that a monarchy or rule by a single person- was the most preferable form of government. He developed an indifference to the cleanest of morality. He believed; need to follow Christian ethics as a necessary means of securing peace within society. He believed, must have the freedom to adjust their acts to the requirement of each occasion without feeling bound to any objective moral rules.

EXAM QUESTION #12

1. Plato was a Greek classical philosopher, mathematician, student of Socrates, writer of philosophical dialogues and founded of the Academy in Athens. Plato’s philosophical views had many societal implications, especially on the idea of an ideal state or government:

Productive: represents the abdomen (workers) - the laborers, carpenters, plumbers, masons, farmers.

Protective: represents the chest (warriors) - those who are adventurous, strong and brave, in the armed forces.

Governing: represents the head (rules of philosopher king) those who are intelligent, rational, in love with wisdom, will suited to make decisions for the community.

Philosopher has to moderate love of wisdom and the courage to act according to wisdom. Wisdom is knowledge about the God or the right relations between all that exists.

2. Aristotle was a Greek philosopher, Plato’s pupil, tutor of Alexander the Great. He is a father of science and philosophy. His writings cover many subjects, including physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, government, ethics, biology, and zoology. Aristotle was the first thinker to create a comprehensive system of philosophy, to cover all areas of human development: sociology, philosophy, politics, logic, and physics. His views on the ontology had a major impact on the subsequent development of human thought. In metaphysics, Aristotelians’ had a profound influence on philosophical and theological thinking in the Islamic and Jewish traditions in the middle Ages, and it continues to influence Christian theology, especially the scholastic tradition of the Catholic Church. Aristotle was well known among medieval Muslim intellectuals and revered as "The First Teacher of a mankind".

3. Thomas Aquinas was influential philosopher and theologian in the tradition of scholasticism. Aquinas saw specific differences between philosophy and theology, between reason and faith. Philosophy begins with the immediate objects of sense experience and reasons upward to more general conceptions. Theology begins with a faith in God and interprets all things with as creatures of God. Philosopher draws their conclusions from their rational description of the essences of things. Theologians by contrast base their demonstrations upon the authority of revealed knowledge. Philosophy and theology are two separate and independent disciplines. Both philosophy and theology deal with God, but philosopher can only infer that God exists and cannot by refolding upon objects of sensation understand God is essential nature.

 

EXAM QUESTION #13

1. Plato’s philosophical views had many societal implications, especially on the idea of an ideal state or government:

Productive: represents the abdomen (workers) - the laborers, carpenters, plumbers, masons, farmers.

Protective: represents the chest (warriors) - those who are adventurous, strong and brave, in the armed forces.

Governing: represents the head (rules of philosopher king) those who are intelligent, rational, in love with wisdom, will suited to make decisions for the community.

Philosopher has to moderate love of wisdom and the courage to act according to wisdom. Wisdom is knowledge about the God or the right relations between all that exists.

2. Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early 3rd century BC. The Stoics taught that destructive emotions resulted from errors in judgment, and that a sage, or person of "moral and intellectual perfection," would not suffer such emotions. Stoic living according to reason and virtue, they held, is to live in harmony with the divine order of the universe, in recognition of the common reason and essential value of all people. The four cardinal virtues of the Stoic philosophy are wisdom, courage, justice and temperance, a classification derived from the teachings of Plato. The idea was to be free of suffering through apathies or peace of mind, where peace of mind was understood in the ancient sense—being objective or having "clear judgment" and the maintenance of equanimity in the face of life's highs and lows. Following Socrates, the Stoics held that unhappiness and evil are the results of human ignorance of the reason in nature. If someone is unkind, it is because they are unaware of their own universal reason, which leads to the conclusion of kindness. The solution to evil and unhappiness then, is the practice of Stoic philosophy—to examine one's own judgments and behavior and determine where they diverge from the universal reason of nature. A distinctive feature of Stoicism is its cosmopolitanism: All people are manifestations of the one universal spirit and should, according to the Stoics, live in brotherly love and readily help one another

3.Dialectics is the science of the general and abstract laws of the development of nature, society, and thought. There are 3 laws of dialectics:

-the law of the unity and conflict of opposites

-the law of the passage of quantitative changes into qualitative changes.

-the law of the negation of the negation.

Law of the unity and conflict of opposites. Everything in existence is a unity of opposites. For example, electricity is characterized by a positive and negative charge and atoms, selfishness and altruism, humbleness and pride.

Law of transformation. Transformation allows for the reverse with quality affecting quantity. The law illustrates that during a long period of time, through a process of small, almost irrelevant accumulation, nature develops noticeable changes in direction.

Law of negation. This law is commonly simplified as the cycle of thesis, antithesis, and synthesis. In society, we have the case of class. For example, the aristocracy was negated by the bourgeoisie, and the bourgeoisie then created the proletariat that will one day negate them.

 

 

EXAM QUESTION #14

1. Plato’s philosophical views had many societal implications, especially on the idea of an ideal state or government:

Productive: represents the abdomen (workers) - the laborers, carpenters, plumbers, masons, farmers.

Protective: represents the chest (warriors) - those who are adventurous, strong and brave, in the armed forces.

Governing: represents the head (rules of philosopher king) those who are intelligent, rational, in love with wisdom, will suited to make decisions for the community.

Philosopher has to moderate love of wisdom and the courage to act according to wisdom. Wisdom is knowledge about the God or the right relations between all that exists.

2. According to the Stoics, the universe is a material, reasoning substance, known as God or Nature, which the Stoics divided into two classes, the active and the passive. The passive substance is matter, which "lies sluggish, a substance ready for any use, but sure to remain unemployed if no one sets it in motion." The active substance, which can be called Fate, or Universal Reason (Logos), is an intelligent ether or primordial fire, which acts on the passive matter. Everything is subject to the laws of Fate, for the Universe acts only according to its own nature, and the nature of the passive matter it governs. The souls of people and animals are emanations from this primordial fire, and are, likewise, subject to Fate. Individual souls are perishable by nature, and can be "transmuted and diffused, assuming a fiery nature by being received into the Seminal Reason of the Universe." Since right Reason is the foundation of both humanity and the universe, it follows that the goal of life is to live according to Reason, that is, to live a life according to Nature.

3. Medieval philosophy is the philosophy in the era now known as medieval or the middle Ages, the period roughly extending from the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century C.E. to the Renaissance in the 16th century. Medieval philosophy, understood as a project of independent philosophical inquiry, began in Baghdad, in the middle of the 8th century, and in France, in the itinerant court of Charlemagne, in the last quarter of the 8th century. It is defined partly by the process of rediscovering the ancient culture developed in Greece and Rome in the classical period, and partly by the need to address theological problems and to integrate sacred doctrine with secular learning. Augustine is certainly the most important and influential philosopher of the middle Ages, and one of the most influential philosophers of any time. The period from the middle of the eleventh century to the middle of the fourteenth century is known as the 'High medieval' or 'scholastic' period. It is generally agreed to begin with Saint Anselm of Canterbury (1033–1109) an Italian philosopher, theologian, and church official who is famous as the originator of the ontological argument for the existence of God. This was a significant departure from the Neo-Platonism and Augustinian thinking that had dominated much of early Scholasticism. Aquinas showed how it was possible to incorporate much of the philosophy of Aristotle.

EXAM QUESTION #15

1. Like other ancient philosophers, Plato maintains a virtue-based eudemonistic conception of ethics. That is to say, human well-being is the highest aim of moral thought and conduct, and the virtues are the requisite skills and dispositions needed to attain it. In his early works his approach is largely negative: Socratic questioning seems designed to undermine the traditional values rather than to develop a positive account of his own. Second, the positive accounts contained in his later works, especially that of the Republic , treat happiness as a state of perfection that is hard to comprehend because it is based on metaphysical presuppositions that seem both hazy and out of the realm of ordinary understanding. Finally: At no stage in Plato's philosophy is there a systematic treatment of and commitment to basic principles of ethics that would justify the derivation of rules and norms of human interaction in the way that is expected in modern discussions. Plato largely confines himself to the depiction of the good soul and the good for the soul, evidently on the assumption that the state of the soul is the condition of the good life, both necessary and sufficient to guarantee it.

2. Epicurus (341-270 B.C.) was born in Samos and died at Athens. Epicurus and his philosophy of pleasure have been controversial for over 2000 years. We usually think of charity, compassion, humility, wisdom, honor, justice, and other virtues as morally good, while pleasure is, at best, morally neutral, but for Epicurus, behavior in pursuit of pleasure assured an upright life. Epicurus says we should not try to increase our pleasure beyond the point of maximum intensity. If you're hungry, there's pain. If you eat to fill the hunger, you feel good. Extravagance leads to pain, not pleasure. The magnitude of pleasure reaches its limit in the removal of all pain. When such pleasure is present, so long as it is uninterrupted, there is no pain either of body or of mind or of both together. It is impossible to live a pleasant life without living wisely and honorably and justly, and it is impossible to live wisely and honorably and justly without living pleasantly.

3. The scientific revolution was the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology, medicine, and chemistry transformed views of society and nature. The scientific revolution began in Europe towards the end of the Renaissance era and continued through the late 18th century, influencing the intellectual social movement known as the Enlightenment. The Polish astronomer Nicolas Copernicus formulated a new hypothesis in his Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres, which said that the sun is at the center of the universe and that the Earth relates daily and revolves around the sun annually. Galileo Galilee discovered the moons around Jupiter. Harvey discovered the circulation of the blood. William Gilbert and Robert Boyle- the father of chemistry formulated his famous law concerning the relation of temperature, volume and measure of gases.

EXAM QUESTION #16

1. Platonic realism is a philosophical term usually used to refer to the idea of realism regarding the existence of universals or abstract objects after the Greek philosopher Plato, a student of Socrates. In Platonic realism, universals do not exist in the way that ordinary physical object. Platonic realism holds that universals do exist in a broad, abstract sense, although not at any spatial or temporal distance from people's bodies. People cannot see or otherwise come into sensory contact with universals, but in order to conceive of universals, one must be able to conceive of these abstract forms. In Platonic realism, forms are related to particulars in that a particular is regarded as a copy of its form. For example, a particular apple is said to be a copy of the form of Apple hood and the apple's redness is an instance of the form of Redness. Participation is another relationship between forms and particulars.

2. Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early 3rd century BC. The Stoics taught that destructive emotions resulted from errors in judgment, and that a sage, or person of "moral and intellectual perfection," would not suffer such emotions. Stoicism teaches the development of self-control and fortitude as a means of overcoming destructive emotions; the philosophy holds that becoming a clear and unbiased thinker allows one to understand the universal reason (logos). A primary aspect of Stoicism involves improving the individual's ethical and moral well-being: "Virtue consists in a will that is in agreement with Nature." This principle also applies to the realm of interpersonal relationships; "to be free from anger, envy, and jealousy," and to accept even slaves as "equals of other men, because all men alike are products of nature." The Stoics propounded that knowledge can be attained through the use of reason. Truth can be distinguished from fallacy; even if, in practice, only an approximation can be made. The mind has the ability to judge approve or reject—an impression, enabling it to distinguish a true representation of reality from one that is false. According to the Stoics, the universe is a material, reasoning substance, known as God or Nature, which the Stoics divided into two classes, the active and the passive. The four cardinal virtues of the Stoic philosophy are wisdom, courage, justice, and temperance a classification derived from the teachings of Plato.

3. Hegel Georg Wilhelm was born at Stuttgart in 1770. Hegel was a great philosopher. He presents structure of his philosophy: logic, philosophy of nature, philosophy of mind. Logic- absolute idea itself, philosophy of nature- absolute idea in nature, philosophy of mind- absolute idea in spirit. Hegel’s philosophy considered: absolute idealism, dialectic. German idealists thought that mind is not physical objects. Hegel said that every reality is rational, and the rational is real. Hegel concludes that all objects of knowledge and therefore all objects are universe and the products of an absolute mind. Hegel said that universal mind include many types of any individual categories grounded in the absolute mind. All of things have universal ideas. Hegel’s philosophy is that nature of reality is rationality. Absolute mind is dynamic processes.

EXAM QUESTION #17

The essence of Plato’s philosophy of idealism.
Plato is unquestionably entitled to our esteem as a powerful mind and a remarkable talent. The colossal mistakes this talent made in the sphere of abstract thought derived not from weakness of mind, shortness of sight, or timidity of thought, but from the predominance of the poetic element, from deliberate contempt of the testimony of experience, and from an overweening desire, common in powerful minds, to extract the truth from the depths of one’s own creative spirit instead of examining and studying it in particular phenomena.
Plato may with all justice be called the father of idealism. Whether this was a signal service to humanity is, of course, a question that will be answered in different ways by representatives of different schools of abstract thought. But whatever the answer, nobody will deny Plato a place of honor in the history of science. Geniuses sometimes make felicitous mistakes that have a stimulating effect on the minds of whole generations. At first highly popular, later they are criticized; the popularity and the subsequent criticism together long serve as a school for mankind, as the ground of an intellectual struggle, as an occasion for the development of capacities, as a guiding and determining principle of historical trends and radical changes.
Plato, however, did not confine himself to the realm of pure thought, and he failed to realize that the true meaning of historical and political life cannot be understood while experience and individual phenomena are neglected. He tried to solve practical problems without even knowing how to pose them properly, so that his efforts in this direction are so feeble and groundless that they collapse completely at the lightest touch of criticism. His efforts show no rational love for mankind, no respect for the individual, no artistic proportion, no unity of purpose, no moral loftiness of ideal.

 

The chief principles of the Epicureanism
Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus, founded around 307 BC. Epicurus was an atomic materialist, following in the steps of Democritus. His materialism led him to a general attack on superstition and divine intervention. Following Aristippus—about whom very little is known—Epicurus believed that what he called "pleasure" is the greatest good, but the way to attain such pleasure is to live modestly and to gain knowledge of the workings of the world and the limits of one's desires. This led one to attain a state of tranquility (ataraxia) and freedom from fear, as well as absence of bodily pain (aponia). The combination of these two states is supposed to constitute happiness in its highest form. Although Epicureanism is a form of hedonism, insofar as it declares pleasure to be the sole intrinsic good, its conception of absence of pain as the greatest pleasure and its advocacy of a simple life make it different from "hedonism" as it is commonly understood.

The problems of Universal in Boethius's philosophy.
commonly called Boethius (c. 480–524 or 525 AD), was a philosopher of the early 6th century. He was born in Rome to the ancient and prominent Anicia family which included emperors Petronius Maximus and Olybrius and many consuls His father, Flavius Manlius Boethius, was consul in 487 after Odoacer deposed the last Western Roman Emperor. Boethius himself entered public life at a young age and was already a senator by the age of 25. He was consul in 510 in the kingdom of the Ostrogoths. In 522 he saw his two sons become consuls. Boethius was imprisoned and eventually executed by King Theodoric the Great, who suspected him of conspiring with the Eastern Roman Empire. While jailed, Boethius composed his Consolation of Philosophy, a philosophical treatise on fortune, death, and other issues

In metaphysics, the problem of universals refers to the question of whether properties exist, and if so, what they are.[1] Properties are qualities or relations that two or more entities have in common. The various kinds of properties, such as qualities and relations are referred to as universals. For instance, one can imagine three cup holders on a table that have in common the quality of being circular or exemplifying circularity, or two daughters that have in common being the daughter of Frank. There are many such properties, such as being human, red, male or female, liquid, big and small, taller than, father of, etc.

While philosophers agree that human beings talk and think about properties, they disagree on whether these universals exist in reality or merely in thought and speech.

 

EXAM QUESTION #18

The ideas of objective idealism in Plato's philosophy.

Plato is one of the first philosophers to discuss what might be termed Idealism, although his Platonic Idealism is, confusingly, usually referred to as Platonic Realism. This is because, although his doctrine described Forms or universals (which are certainly non-material "ideals" in a broad sense), Plato maintained that these Forms had their own independent existence, which is not an idealist stance, but a realist one. However, it has been argued that Plato believed that "full reality" (as distinct from mere existence) is achieved only through thought, and so he could be described as a non-subjective, "transcendental" idealist, somewhat like Kant.Objective idealism is an idealistic metaphysics that postulates that there is in an important sense only one perceiver, and that this perceiver is one with that which is perceived. One important advocate of such a metaphysics, Josiah Royce, wrote that he was indifferent "whether anybody calls all this Theism or Pantheism". Plato is regarded as one of the earliest representatives of objective idealism.[1] It is distinct from the subjective idealism of George Berkeley, and it abandons the thing-in-itself of Kant's dualism.

The principle schools in classical Greek philosophy after Aristotle.
Ancient Greek philosophy extends from as far as the seventh century B.C. up until the beginning of the Roman Empire, in first century A.D. During this period five great philosophical traditions originated: the Platonist, the Aristotelian, the Stoic, the Epicurean, and the Skeptic.

Aristotle lived from 384 to 322 B.C., and was born, not in Athens but in Stagira, Thrace. Originally a pupil of Plato, he made a thorough study of his philosophy over a period of twenty years, but evidently became dissatisfied with it. After Plato's death, he left the Academy and later became the tutor of Alexander. He returned to Athens in 335 B.C., to found his own school, the Lyceum. His was an encyclopaedic mind, encompassing a huge number of subjectslogic, rhetoric, ethics, political sciences, biology, physics and metaphysics ("what comes after physics," the study of first principles and presuppositions). He is the real founder of logic, natural history, the theory of morals, and even of economics. Aristotle's interest in physics and biology is an illustration of his general approach, his love of experiment and observation as the main source of knowledge. In this, he was a pioneer of the modern scientific method. When Alexander the Great was engaged on his wars of conquest, he arranged to send back to Aristotle details and drawings of all new discoveries of plants and animals. What a difference to Plato, who regarded the crude material world of nature as unworthy of his attention! Aristotle spent many years collecting, arranging, and classifying information from all manner of spheres.

Distinguish between Epicureanism and stoicism
Epicureanism and Stoicism occupy a unique place in the history of human thought. They were philosophies, not religions, but they came to take the place of religion with the more educated ancient Greeks and Romans. They answered questions about ultimate reality, right conduct, and the way for human beings to find meaning and happiness in their lives. This book omits the metaphysical teachings about the nature of the world and reality, but covers the personal and moral instruction.
The passages selected are wise, based on a close observation of human life. But they are also beautiful and moving. They speak to us as directly today as they did to the ancients.In Roman times the differences between Epicureanism and Stoicism were emphasized. From the perspective of our own time, the similarities are more striking. Both instructed us, as the old saying goes, to be “philosophical” about life.In particular, both Epicureanism and Stoicism taught, as Shakespeare later put it, that “Nothing is but thinking makes it so.” If we want to be happy and productive, we must strengthen and train our willful and wayward minds. There are echoes of the Buddha’s Dhammapada, and it is noteworthy that Buddhism too began as a highly empirical philosophy rather than as a religion.
Each saying in this short book is worth reading and re-reading. It is, in effect, a user’s manual for life, and continues to be as useful and relevant for us as it was for the ancients.

EXAM QUESTION #19


Date: 2015-12-11; view: 1609


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