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The Objective Participial Construction

The functions of Participle 1 in the sentence.

1) Participle 1 Indefinite Active is an attribute. In this function Participle 1 can be in pre-position and in post-position. It can precede the noun it modifies and follow it.

Participle 1 in pre-position hardly ever has accompanying words.

Participle 1 in post-position as a rule has several or more accompanying words.

Participle 1 Indefinite Passive is seldom used as an attribute.

Participle 1 Indefinite Active and Passive is not used attributively.

Cannot express priority in this function.

Attribute expressed by Participle 1 can be detached and separated by comma.

Ex.: The fence surrounding the garden is newly painted.

We admired stars twinkling in the sky.

2) Participle 1 as an adverbial modifier. All the forms of Participle 1 can be used as an adverbial modifier.

Participle 1 Indefinite expresses an action simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb.

Participle 1 Perfect expresses an action prior to the action expressed by the finite verb.

Participle 1 can be an adverbial modifier:

---of time

---of cause

---of manner and attendant circumstances

---of comparison

Ex.: Having closed the drawing room door on him,she awaited a little.

Having being a little in that line myself, I understood it.

She was silent,again looking at her hands.

This was said as if thinking aloud.

3) Participle 1 as a predicative. Is seldom used in this function.

Ex.: The affect of her words was terrifying.

4) Participle 1 as a part of complex object.

Ex.: I saw that young man and his wife talking to you on the stairs.

5) Participle 1 as a part of compound verbal predicate.

Ex.: Presently other footsteps were heard crossing the room below.

6) Participial phrase as parenthesis.

A single participle is not used,only phrase.

Ex.: Generally speaking,I hate reading.

The functions of Participle 2 in the sentence.

1) Participle 2 as an attribute.

Can be used in pre-position and post-position.

An attribute expressed by Participle 2 may be detached,in this case it often has an additional meaning of an adverbial modifier.

2) Participle 2 as an adverbial modifier.

It is preceded by the conjunctions when , while, if, as though…

Participle 2 can be an adverbial modifier of:

---of time

---of condition

---of comparison

---of concession

3) Participle 2 as a predicative.

4) Participle 2 as a part of complex object.

Ex.: When guestioned Anna had implied vaguely,that ahe was sad.

That was a breach of the law which if discovered would bring them to the police court.

As if torn with inner conflict and indecision,he cried.

Her spirit though crushed , was not broken.

In spite of himself, he was impressed.

She has found me unaltered, but I have found her changed.

Predicative constructions with the participle:

The Objective Participial Construction

The Subjective Participial Construction

The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction

The Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction



The Objective Participial Construction

Is a construction in which the participle is in predicate relation to a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case.

In the Objective Participial Construction Participle 1 Indefinite Active or Participle 2 is used.

The Objective Participial Construction may be found:

---after verbs denoting sense perceptions such as to see,to hear, to feel,to find.

---after some verbs of mental activity, such as to consider, to understand.

--- after verbs denoting wish, such as to want , to wish,to desire. In such sace Participle 2 is used.

---after the verbs to have and to get. Only Participle 2 is used.

In interrogative and negative sentences the auxiliary verb to do is used.

Occasionally the meaning of the construction is different.

Ex.: I heard my wife coming

I considered myself engaged to Klesmer

The governor wants it done quick.

I had my coat altered.

Why don’t you have your hair waved?

The wounded man has his amputated

Date: 2015-12-11; view: 2271

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