- morphological (grammatical form part of speech)
- syntactical connection and position
Subject. Main syntactic function. Not dependent on any other part of the sentence. Marked morphologically and positionally (initial). Semantic role agent.
Semantic types of Subject:
- definite (Fleur smiled; Loving is forgiving)
- indefinite (you never can tell; they say; one cannot be )
- dummy (it was rather cold; there were no seats)
Predicate. Central role in English. Main syntactic function. Action, progress, state. Verb/link verb + predicative. Linked to the subject through agreement. Determines the number and kind of obligatory complements (sometimes no complements). Position depends on the communicative type of the sentence.
Types of predicate:
- compound (nominal, modal, aspective)
- mixed types (it must be a bomb!; he was to become a doctor; you must stop doing nothing!)
- double predicate (the 1st part is always notional, the 2nd nominal: he came home tired)
Link verbs: be, get, become, feel, taste, smell.
She took a glance; he made a mistake phraseological units (cant separate them).
Object. A secondary syntactic function. A thing or state of affairs which is affected by the event denoted by the verb.
Types of Object:
- direct (I read a book)
- indirect (I read him a book; I read a book to him)
- prepositional (I am confident of it)
Attribute. A secondary syntactic function. Modifies a nominal head. Characterize, qualify, identify persons or things.
Apposition (๏๐่๋๎ๆๅํ่ๅ). Optional constituent of a noun phrase which agrees referentially with the nominal head (Aunt Polly; Oxford University; Philipp, my best friend). Typically nouns. Additional characteristics, specification.
Adverbial modifier. A secondary syntactic function. Characteristics of the action, circumstances. Optional element of the sentence.
Semantic types of Adverbial Modifiers:
- attending circumstances
- degree and measure (she felt extremely nervous)
- reason (we stopped because of being tired)
- purpose (the room was used for dancing)
- condition (if found, the secret will be publicized)
- result (he is too old to be elected)
- concession (though a grandmother, she didnt look old)
- unexpected circumstances (he went to Africa to die there)
Independent parts of the sentence:
- addressing (doctor; mum)
Complex parts of the sentence:
- complex subject (He was known to have been there)
- complex object (I saw her enter the house)
- complex attribute (This is a book for you to read)
Theory of the three ranks (Otto Jespersen 1937)
Extremely hot weather:
Weather primary. Hot secondary. Extremely tertiary.
Immediate Constituent Analysis (IC)
Leonard Bloomfield. Aimed to analyse a linguistic expression into a hierarchically defined series of constituents. If the complex expression is movable or can be replaced in the sentence by a simple expression, it counts as a constituent. The most basic principle of transformational grammar.
Actual division of the sentence (functional sentence perspective). Prague school.
- communicative structure of the sentence
- informative prospective of the sentence
- informational structure of the sentence
Theme and rheme.
Habit is a second nature (habit theme, a second nature rheme).
Theme (the basis) the starting point of communication, usually contains some old, already known information (topic, given).
Rheme (the nucleus) the basic informative part of the sentence, its contextually relevant communicative centre, the peak of communication, or the information reported about the rheme; it ususally contains some new information (comment, focus).
How to find the rheme?
- intonation, logical stress
- special question
A secondary rheme: there is a pond in the garden.
The rheme is the obligatory informative component of a sentence.
There may be sentences which include only the rheme; the theme and the transition are optional (Who sang the song? Caroline).