1. Grammar in the Systemic Conception of Language.
2. Morphemic Structure of the Word.
3. Categoriñal Structure of the Word.
4. Grammatical Classes of Words.
GRAMMAR IN THE SYSTEMIC CONCEPTION OF LANGUAGE
Languageis a means of forming and storing ideas as reflections of reality and exchanging them in the process of human intercourse. Language is social by nature; it is connected with people who are its creators and users; it grows and develops together with the development of society.
Language incorporates the three constituent parts: the phonological system, the lexical system, the grammatical system. The unity of these three elements forms a language.The phonological system determines the phonetical appearance of units; the lexical system is the whole set of naming means of language (words and word-groups). The grammatical system is the whole set of regularities determining the combination of naming means in the formation of utterances as the embodiment of thinking process.
Each of the three constituent parts of language is studied by a particular linguistic discipline. The phonological description of language is effected by the science of phonology; the lexical description of language is effected by the science of lexicology; the grammatical description of language is effected by the science of grammar.
Any linguistic description has a practical or theoretical purpose. A practical description is aimed at providing the student with a manual of practical mastery of the corresponding part of language. The theoretical linguistic description is aimed to explain the inner structure of language and the mechanisms of its functioning. The aim of theoretical grammar of a language is to present a theoretical description of its grammatical system, i.e. to analyse and define its grammatical categories and study the mechanisms of grammatical formation of utterances out of words in the process of speech making.
MORPHEMIC STRUCTURE OF WORDS
The morphological system of language reveals its properties through the morphemic structure of words. Morphology is a part of grammatical theory, which faces the two segmental units: the morpheme and the word.
The word is a complex and many-sided phenomenon. The word can be defined as the minimal potential sentence, the minimal free linguistic form, the elementary component of the sentence, the articulate sound-symbol, the grammatically arranged combination of sound with its meaning, the uninterrupted string of morphemes, etc. None of these definitions can cover all the lexical segments of language. Let’s point out the properties of the morpheme and the word, which are fundamental from the point of view of their systemic status.
The morpheme is a meaningful segmental component of the word; the morpheme is formed by phonemes; as a meaningful component of the word it is elementary (it is indivisible into smaller segments).
The word is a nominative unit of language; it is formed by morphemes; it enters the lexicon of language as its elementary component; together with other nominative units the word is used for the formation of the sentence – a unit of information in the communication process.
In traditional grammar the study of the morphemic structure of the word was conduced in the light of the two basic criteria:
- positional criterion – the location of the marginal morphemes in relation to the central ones;
- semantic or functional criterion – the correlative contribution of the morphemes to the general meaning of the word.