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E.g. You must do it. Must he do it? They must not (mustn't) do it.

I have to do it. Does he have to do it? We do not have to do it.

You should do it. Should I do it? They should not do it.

He ought to do it. Ought I to do it? We ought not (oughtn't) to do it.

I need to do it. Do we need to do it? They don't need to do it (needn't do it).

We are to do it. Is she to do it? You are not to do it.

3.2.1a Study the list of meanings expressed with the help of the modal verb "may" and "might". Give your own examples.

1. Obligation You must pay your rent regularly.
2. Necessity They must attach their CV.
3. Personal stance Imustsee my father once a week.
4. Certainty That must be Tom on the phone.
5. Strong probability It's dinner time. He mustbe back home.
6. Evident probability Hemustbe sleeping. There's no light on.
7. Logical conclusion She mustreally enjoy it. I know her taste.
8. Order You mustvacate the premises at once.
9. Prohibition You mustn’t smoke in public places.



3.2.1b Study the list of meanings expressed with the help of modal verb "have to". Give your own examples.

1. Force of circumstances We have to sleep in a tent tonight.
2. Necessity You have togive the money back.
3. Regulations You have to report to office early.
4. Plans and schedules I have to go and see the doctor today.
5. Personal necessity She has togo on a low-calorie diet.
6. Informal conclusion There has to besome mystery here.
7. Lack of necessity I don’t have to pay the rent.
8. Lack of obligation You don’t have to give a party.
9. Past certainty Hehad to be the person I saw on TV.
10. Past necessity She had to work night shifts.


3.2.1c. Study the list of meanings expressed with the help of modal verb "should". Give your own examples.

1. Instruction You should always wear protective glasses.
2. Advice You shouldsleep well after such a stress.
3. Obligation You should pay the bills yourself.
4. Expectation He shouldbe back from exams soon.
5. In “if”-clause If he should come, tell him I am not in.
6. Responsibility You shouldcheck the mail twice a day.
7. Offer Should I help you with the luggage?
8. Complaint You shouldhave been more polite last time.
9. Criticism Youshouldhave done a better job.
10. Regret I shouldn’thave used such a strong language.
11. Prohibition You shouldn’tenter without knocking first.

Compare: "You needn't have done it" (others could have done it for you) and "You shouldn't have done it" (you have made the matter worse)


3.2.1d. Study the list of meanings expressed with the help of modal verb "ought to". Give your own examples.

1. Giving advice Your child ought to have more fresh air every day.
2. Obligation She ought to return the book and apologize.
3. Probability The plane ought to have landed by now.
4. Complaint You ought to have come back sooner.
5. Criticism Jason's wife ought to be more economical.
6. Expectation The workers ought to finish the job soon.



3.2.1e. Study the list of meanings expressed with the help of "to be to". Give your own examples.

1. Force of expectations The minister says you are to make a report.
2. Planned arrangement We are to be at the airport at 7.
3. Expected developments The plane is to arrive on time. Compare: The plane is due (to arrive) on time.


3.2.1f. Study the list of meanings expressed with the help of the modal verb "need to". Give your own examples.

1. Individual necessity. I need to take this medicine once a day.
2. Necessity of situation We need tohurry up or we'll miss the train.
3. Legal regulation One needs tobe 18 or over to buy alcohol.
4. Reassurance You needn'tworry.
5. Permission not to do They don't need todo the job.
6. Reminding of duty We all need todo our best.
7. Lack of necessity Martha doesn't need topay out at once.


3.2.2. Match grammar structures with their meaning.

1. You must catch the 5-oclock train A. Necessity B. Personal stance C. Obligation
2. I must take first place in the competition A. Necessity B. Obligation C. Personal stance
3. Dennis must be sitting in his office now. A. Evident probability B. Strong probability C. Logical conclusion
4. You must go through the metal detector. A. Order B. Obligation C. Necessity
5. Pauline had to wait till her husband came. A. Necessity B. Force of circumstances C. Past certainty
6. Men don't have to wear ties. A. Personal necessity B. Lack of necessity C. Lack of obligation
7. Immigrants have to submit their work permits. A. Regulations B. Necessity C. Plans and schedules
8. This has to be a stranger. A. Informal conclusion B. Personal necessity C. Regulations
9. The train should arrive early in the morning the day after. A. Plans and schedules B. Expectation C. Obligation
10. Marlene should have been more discriminate about her friends. A. Complaint B. Regret C. Criticism
11. You should put two table-spoonfuls of sugar and stir the mix carefully. A. Advice B. Instruction C. Offer
12. Your child ought to be more careful playing with the knife. A. Giving advice B. Complaint C. Criticism
13. The boss ought to come any minute now. A. Obligation B. Probability C. Expectation
14. The students are to submit their papers at the end of the exam without delay. A. Obligation B. Force of expectations C. Planned arrangement
15. You need to show your picture ID at the airport. A. Legal regulation B. Necessity of situation C. Individual necessity
16. All of us need to rise to the occasion and to use our talents and skills. A. Necessity of situation B. Reminding of duty C. Individual necessity
17. The gardener should water the flowers every morning before the sun is too hot. A. Necessity of situation B. Instruction C. Responsibility


3.2.3. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate choice. Explain the difference.

1. You … obey the law.

2. Barbara … visit her son in the hospital twice a day.

3. The clerk … be more polite to senior citizens.

4. The children … like this book very much.

5. In case of a fire danger, you … immediately turn off all appliances.

6. David … have worked very hard. Look, how tired he is.

7. Many people these days … live on a dole.

8. You … be rude in order to prove your point.

9. When I saw him I thought that he … be the right person.

10. With such a big family to support, Albert … day and night.

11. Your daughter … less high-calorie food.

12. Tanya … read better for her exam. The result is poor.

13. My prediction is that the team … win.

14. The general agreement is that you … make a report yourself.

15. You … bring a bottle. There's plenty of wine in the house.


1. A/ must B/ must/have to C/ have to D/ought to

2. A/ must B/ has to C/must/has to D/ought to

3. A/ must B/ ought to C/ has to D/must/has to

4. A/ should B/ must C/ have to D/ ought to

5. A/ must B/ have to C/ ought to D/ should

6. A/ should B/ ought to C/ must D/ should/must

7. A/ have to B/ should C/ are to D/ must

8. A/ must not B/ do not have to C/ oughtn't to D/ shouldn't

9. A/ should B/ ought to C/ must D/ had to

10.A/ had to work B/ must have worked C/should have worked D/worked

11. A/ should B/ should/ought to C/ ought to D/ must

12. A/ must have B/ ought to have C/ should D/ should have

13. A/ must B/must/should C/must/ought to D/ ought to

14. A/ are to B/must C/ have to D/ ought to

15. A/ should not B/ don't have to C/ oughtn't to D/ needn't


3.2.4. Fill the gaps in the text below with modal verbs expressing ability and necessity. Use other words where given changing the form if necessary.

Stress is a condition that … be both good and bad for your health. If one … cope with stress, then it will stimulate one for success. If you are … to rise to the occasion, then stress will ruin you and the job you are doing. Stress will leave you drained and depressed unless you know how … manage it. It is believed that physical exercises … help us cope with stress better. This is because exercises will stimulate the production of useful chemicals in the brain and will … the body to fight stress. In other words, one … to "work out" the worries and "sweat out" the stress if one has to continue successfully. Even a ten-minute walk … go a long way to upping your energy level. Office workers … do physical exercises every two-three hours in order to feel less jittery and … to treat their clients with patience. Those who feel depressed … take an exercise session and the post-exercise euphoria … improve the mood. If one knows that a crucial moment is to follow, yoga exercises … you to feel relaxed and more alert. Another point is that many people … a better self-esteem. In order to enhance it some individuals … ego-centred and even aggressive. Instead, they … do more exercises that work better than a well known meditation. One … exercise regularly if one has sleep problems caused by stress. Those who exercise regularly will sleep better and … perform a better job without feeling tired. People experiencing stress … take exercises because physical activity reduces harmful adrenaline in blood caused by stress. If people exercise more, they … eat healthy food and this helps the body manage stress better. Also, when one is stressed out, one … more time for him-/herlslf. One does not … to be alone. Exercises with a friend during stressful periods … improve health and performance considerably. Ability Ability Ability Ability Ability Ability


3.2.5. GRAMMAR-GLOSS. Read the text only once and write a free version of what you have read. Focus on modal verbs.


Preparing for exams can be difficult for various reasons. However, there are some small "secrets" that can enable students to do better. First of all one should be prepared. Studying should be paced throughout the semester. Students should not wait until the last minute before the exam. They ought to get plenty of rest and eat healthy meals because the body needs food rich in vitamins and minerals. One should be positive. You have studied thoroughly and can expect good results. At the exam one should read the directions carefully and is to follow them exactly as written. Examination time is limited, so students must plan their test-taking time. Some students will need to split their exam time carefully. The students are recommended to answer the questions they know first. They should reread the answers carefully. They have to monitor the time so that to turn the paper in before the exam is complete. With any result, they must learn from their incorrect answers and continue studies in more detail. Students can make the most even of the unsuccessful attempts. In this case they will be able to do better next time.


3.2.6. Write what one should, ought, need, must, can and may do to look and feel well despite ageing.



Date: 2015-12-11; view: 1201

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Ved or irregular verbs. | E.g. I can do it. He should do it. She needs to do it. We are able to do it. They have to do it. You are to do it. He needs to do it. Etc.
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