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Ved or irregular verbs.

E.g. I did … We played … He went … They brought …

Irregular Verbs Reminder
Awake ? ?
Begin ? ?
? Bled ?
? ? Built
Buy ? ?
? Chose ?
Deal ? ?
? ? Dwelt
Feed ? ?
? Hung ?
Freeze ? ?
Lend ? ?
Quit ? ?
? ? Rid
? Sang ?
? Swore ?
? Threw ?
? ? Worn
Write ? ?


1.5.1. Study the list of meanings expressed with the help of Past Simple and give your own examples.

1.Past activity She took a courseat Oxford.
2. Time marker They set out on a journey last month
3. Fact in the past World War the Second beganin Europe.
4. Past situation The police circledin on the criminal and got him.
5. Reported details The treasure weighed10 pounds.
6. Long-term process When a student I attendedthe students' club.
7. Past ways Long ago, theywould wash clothes in the river.
8. Past habits He used to riseearly and go for a long walk He was (got) used to risingearly and going…
9. Attitudes They all hatedthe idea of staying at home.
10. With “when” When did the plane land?
11. Narrative Once upon a time there liveda poor peasant.


1.5.2. Match grammar structures with their meaning.

1. They bought this car only a week ago. A/ Past situation B/ Time marker C/ Fact in the past
2. The bell rang and it was a signal to start. A/ Past situation. B/ Fact in the past C/ Narrative
3. The Olympics began in Greece. A/ Past situation B/ Fact in the past C/ Narrative
4. During the Olympic games all wars would stop A/ Past situation B/ Past ways C/ Past habits
5. They studied two ancient languages. A/ Past situation B/ Past activity C/ Long-term process
6. And they lived happily ever after. A/ Narrative B/ Reported details C/ Long-term process
7. We used to go fishing early in the morning A/ Narrative B/ Past habits C/ Past ways
8. He preferred sleeping rough A/ Past activity B/ Past habits C/ Attitudes
9. After a car chase the criminal was arrested A/ Past situation B/ Fact in the past C/ Narrative
10. The strange bird had wings but no beak. A/ Narrative B/ Reported details C/ Past situation


1.5.3. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate choice. Explain the difference.

1. Last night I … a temperature.

2. When … she would be home?

3. I … busy and have not prepared anything to eat.

4. The kid does not even want to look at a book but he … a lot.

5. He … up late every night.

6. Did he … to smoke a lot?

7. I hardly ever … him after the family moved house.

8. At first I hated Paris but soon afterwards I … better.

9. I made a lot of friends but eventually I … to leave

10. The prisoner got … to himself.



1. A/ had B/ took C/ ran D/ was

2. A/ she said B/ said she C/ did she say D/ she says

3. A/ have B/ was C/ am D/ did

4. A/ would read B/ read C/ used reading D/ used to read

5. A/ would stay B/ used to stay C/ got staying D/ got stayed

6. A/ used B/ use C/ get used D/ was used

7. A/ have met B/ met C/ meeting D/ meets

8. A/ used to feel B/ got used C/ would feel D/ felt

9. A/ had B/ gave C/ went D/ made

10. A/ speaking B/ got used speaking C/ spoke D/ got used to speaking


1.5.4. Fill the gaps in the text below with verbs. Use the words given by changing the form if necessary (the words are given in a random order and can be used more than once).

In a village there … a poor widow with her daughter. They … in an old house with a roof full of holes. The old women … to go the forest to fetch some wood in winter and strawberries in summer. Once in summer, the mother … ill and the girl had to go to the forest to pick up strawberries. She … a pot and a piece of bread and …. When the pot … full of strawberries, she … to a well, … the bread and … to eat it. It … just noon. Suddenly an old woman …. She … like a beggar and … a pot in her hand. The old woman asked for a piece of bread. The girl … the woman all her lunch. In return, the woman … the girl a pot that … gruel. The woman … the pot and …. When the girl … home, she … everything to her mother and … the pot on the table. Suddenly the gruel … to be cooked. They both … down and … the gruel. There was more and more gruel and they … looking at the pot. The gruel was everywhere and … to run out of the house. Soon there was a hill of gruel in the village and when the farmers … to get home, they … eat the path through the gruel hill. Would Take Begin Have Sit Go Tell Freeze Come Appearance Want Give Be Put Look Eat Use Cook Live


1.5.5. GRAMMAR-GLOSS. Read the text only once and write a free version of what you have read. Focus on Past Simple (you can use other tenses as well).


A professor in Oxford proposed a controversial new theory on how people first began to speak. Modern human beings appeared in Africa more than a hundred thousand years ago and had a language by thirty thousand years ago. At that period the wiring of our brains changed and this allowed humans to develop the language. This change increased the division between the two halves of our brain. One side of the brain, usually left, became free to develop speech. This change happened only to some humans and this advantage allowed their offspring to dominate. Another theory is that language developed gradually over a long period of time. A great deal of debate has sparked on this controversial issue and has been going on for years. The reason is that language development has left no traces or hard evidence on the ground to study its origin and growth. All we have is guesswork based on other sciences such as biological anthropology.


1.5.6. Write about the reasons that led to extinction of dinosaurs on Earth (climate, food, glaciers, asteroid, bacteria etc). Focus on Past Simple.




1.6. Past Progressive Tense

Was + Ving

E.g. I was doing … They were doing … Was he doing … ? We were not doing … ?


1.6.1. Study the list of meanings expressed with the help of Past Progressive and give your own examples.

1. Activity at a past moment Shewas sittingquietly knitting a sweater.
2. Process in the past We were debating this questionfor quite a while.
3. Two processes in the past While I was bending over backwards, you were lyingon the beach.
4. Interrupted past action The guests were having lunch when the police came.
5. Past scene description The children were playing while the adults were talking.
6. Past temporary activity I was takinga course in anthropology that autumn.
7. Past changing situations It was becomingincreasingly dangerous.


1.6.2. Match grammar structures with their meaning.

1. The movement was gathering momentum. A/ Scene description B/ Developing situation C/ Process in the past
2. The guests were singing and dancing. A/ Activity at a past moment. B/ Process in the past C/ Scene description
3. The Arsenal was playing in South America then. A/ Activity at a past moment. B/ Process in the past C/ Past temporary activity
4. The wind was blowing and the lightening was piercing the sky A/ Two processes in the past B/ Past scene description C/ Past changing situation
5. He was staying in bed while I was looking for a doctor. A/ Past scene description B/ Two processes in the past C/ Interrupted past action
6. I was taking a shower when the telephone rang. A/ Past scene description B/ Two processes in the past C/ Interrupted past action
7. I was working for the University of Cambridge and this is my best memory. A/ Activity at a past moment B/ Process in the past C/ Past temporary activity
8. I have been standing under the rain for hours. A/ Temporary duration B/ Up to now continuing past C/ Temporary situation
9. You have been fighting again! A/ Recent past linked to present B/ Process in the past C/ Past temporary activity


1.6.3. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate choice. Explain the difference.

1. She … in the sea enjoying herself.

2. The hunters … the wolf tired but ready to fight back.

3. Tourist groups … every Friday night.

4. Have you already … him?

5. Guests … at 7 P.M.

6. I … to think that this small boy is the criminal.

7. We … a chat for a short while.

8. Last summer I … for the exam and did not rest at all.

9. The fire-fighters … the window step by step.

10. I … night shift week after next.


1. A/ was bathing B/ bathed C/ has been bathing D/ swam

2. A/ have found B/ found C/ were attaching D/ killed

3. A/ are setting our B/ set out C/ have set out D/ sets out

4. A/ seeing B/ saw C/ seen D/ looked

5. A/ were arriving B/ have arrived C/ arrive D/ are arriving

6. A/ am refusing B/ refuse C/ have refused D/ am refuse

7. A/ had B/ were having C/ have had D/ have

8. A/ was reading B/ read C/ have read D/ have been reading

9. A/ reached B/ have reached C/ have been reaching D/ were reaching

10. A/ am taking B/ was taking C/ have taken D/ took


1.6.4. Fill the gaps in the text below with verbs. Use the words given by changing the form if necessary

In the early hours of the morning in April 1775 several hundred British soldiers … out of Boston. Their order was to seize weapons and ammunition from rebellious colonists. The colonists already knew that the soldiers …. Signal lights … from the spire of Boston's tallest church and the two fast riders …off with the news. When the British soldiers … they saw that the colonists … their way. These colonists were "minutemen" because there were ready to take up arms any minute whenever necessary. Nobody knows who … the first shot and them other shots came. Eight minutemen … dead. While the minutemen …, hundreds more … at the scene. They … down one by one many British soldiers. This was how the American War of Independence …. Soon American national government … support from France (Britain's old enemy) and … all political ties with Britain. March Come, hang Gallop Come Bar Fire Fall, fight Gather, shoot Begin Seek Cut  


1.6.5. GRAMMAR-GLOSS. Read the text only once and write a free version of what you have read. Focus on Past Progressive (you can use other tenses as well).


The Lad and the Fox (Swedish tale)

There was once upon a time a little lad, who was going to church. When he came to a clearing in the forest he caught sight of a fox, who was lying on the top of a big stone. The fox was sleeping and did not see that the bow was looking at her. The boy thought of a plan, "first I am killing the fox. Then I am selling the skin and getting money for it. With this money I am buying some rye. I am sowing that rye in my father's cornfield. When the rye is ripe I am selling the grain and getting so much money that I have never had in my life. When the people are passing by my field I will shout at them to keep away from my rye. I shall scream with all my might!". The boy did not notice that he was screaming so loudly indeed that the fox woke up and made off at once for the forest. The lad did not even get a handful of the fox's hair in his hand. As the saying goes, it's always best to take what you can reach.


1.6.6. Look at these photos taken by a detective following a suspected criminal. Say what the suspect was doing at every particular moment. Continue the description.

9.30 p.m. Entering the gate of the house   9.35. Tampering with the door lock 9.37. Entering the house. 9.38. Turning on the light in the back room. 9.40. Pausing for a smoke.
9.46. Making a telephone call   9.51. Coming out to the front door 9. 58. A car is coming up to the house 9. 59. Two men are carrying (vague) ?


1.7. Past Perfect Tense

Had + done

E.g. I had done it … before he … They had not done it until … Had you done it when …?

Irregular verbs reminder
Thrust ? ?
? Beat ?
? ? Cost
Run ? ?
? Flew ?
? ? Drawn
Feed ? ?
? Fought ?
Forbid ? ?
? ? Frozen
Hurt ? ?
? Knelt ?
? ? Led
? ? Lit
Ride ? ?
? ? Rung
? Shone ?
? Sat ?
Sting ? ?
? Swung ?
? ? Torn
? ? Won

1.7.1. Study the list of meanings expressed with the help of Past Perfect and give your own examples.

1 Priority in the past Before they met he had never known real happiness
2 Completion before past When they came to the airport the check in hadalreadystarted .
3 Accomplishment by the past time By the early 20 century Russia had still remainedan agricultural state.
4 Urgent action I slammed the window before those birds had burst in.
5 Cause and consequence It was freezing in the room because they had left the window open.
6 With "hardly…when", "no sooner… than", etc. Hardly had we raised glasses when the clock struck midnight. No sooner had he held out his hands, thanthe handcuffs clicked.
7 Unrealized hope I had wanted (hoped, meant, intended, thought) to visit them but there was no chance.
8 Reported speech She said her husband had given up on their son.


1.7.2. Match grammar structures with their meaning.

1. When the police arrived the guests had already gone. A/Priority in the past B/ Completion before past C/ Unrealised hope
2. This woman on board behaved as though she had never flown by air before. A/ Priority in the past B/ Completion before past C/ Cause and consequence
3. James Bond realised that he had made a grave mistake A/ Cause and consequence B/ Reported speech C/ Completion before past
4. The kids had just had their lunch and were playing joyfully in the garden. A/ Priority in the past B/ Completion before past C/ Cause and consequence
5. My intention had been to help but instead I was brutally attacked by the gang. A/ Reported speech B/ Cause and consequence C/ Unrealised hope
6. I rang off before he had replied in his usual offensive manner. A/ Reported speech B/ Completion before past C/ Urgent action
7. He had ruined happiness that we built together. A/ Unrealised hope B/ Past linked to present C/ Cause and consequence
8. In my youth I worked for the IBM corporation A/ Reported speech B/ Priority in the past C/ Long-term process
9. We were having coffee when the telephone rang. A/ Interrupted past action B/ Two processes in the past C/ Completion before past
10. The sun was shining and the bathers were lying on the beach. A/ Two processes in the past B/ Past scene description C/ Cause and consequences


1.7.3. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate choice. Explain the difference.

1. My plan … to break the window but there were strong bars on it.

2. The dog had … the boy before he was able to shrink back.

3. No sooner had the stranger noticed me … he got lost in the crowd.

4. I … thirsty. Let's find some cola.

5. You can hold down your umbrella. It … any more.

6. When I … Tom the news, he did not believe me.

7. What time … Ann … out?

8. I … basketball all the time. Feeling tired.

9. I left my bag under the desk and somebody … it.

10. I … dreaming and suddenly woke up.

11. My granddad … glasses just to show off.

12. I … to buy a present but did not have time.


1. A/ was being B/ had been C/ has been D/ was

2. A/ bite B/ beaten C/ bit D/ bitten

3. A/ than B/ then C/ when D/ how

4. A/ am getting B/ have got C/ am being D/ have been

5. A/ does not rain B/ hasn't rained C/ isn't raining D/ rains

6. A/ had told B/ told C/ was telling D/ have told

7. A/ did … out B/ has … out C/ was … gone D/ was going

8. A/ have been playing B/ have played C/ played D/ was playing

9. A/ took B/ have taken C/ had taken D/ is taking

10. A/ was B/ have been C/ was being D/ had been

11. A/ used to wear B/ was used to wearing C/ wore D/ had worn

12. A/ had meant B/ was meaning C/ have meant D/ mean


1.7.4. Fill the gaps in the text below with verbs. Use the words given, by changing the form if necessary

Two young men, 18 and 19 year old, … a crocodile killing their friend. The creature mauled a man to death in the north of Australia in front of two friends who … up a tree. The youth went to their friend's aid, but the crocodile turned on them - still with the body in its jaws. The two 19-year-olds … up a tree, where they … 22 hours to be rescued by helicopter. There is no sign of 22-year-old young man, nor of the four-metre-long (13-foot) saltwater crocodile. The two survivors … reporters of their agonising wait for help after the crocodile … their friend away to death. The three friends … on a bicycle ride and had stopped by a river. Their friend was swept out by a strong current and, as the other two … to his rescue, one of them spotted the crocodile. They didn't hear a thing, didn't hear a scream, no splashing or anything. Two minutes later, the crocodile … the body to the surface and showed it off to the young men. Five minutes later, he was back stalking the tree around us. He … around the tree all night and pretty much of the next morning. With the crocodile still lurking beneath the tree, the helicopter raised the two young men to safety. Police said the friends … fortunate to survive. Saltwater crocodiles … the world's largest reptiles, aggressive and dangerous. About 100,000 live in tropical northern Australia. They … more than a dozen people in the past 20 years. Witness Scramble Go Wait Tell Drag Be Go Bring Hang Be Be Kill


1.7.5. GRAMMAR-GLOSS. Read the text only once and write a free version of what you have read. Focus on Past Perfect (you can use other tenses as well).


No sooner had the computers come into exams, than the students began their hi-tech cheating. New forms of exams meant that new forms of fraud became available. While educationists were thinking about new opportunities for measuring performance on the Internet, the students decided to take no chances. One of the practices that had quickly sprung up had been to hack the exam papers on line. Traditional cribbing, copying and passing notes had acquired new cutting edge forms. The students had taken a new opportunity of visiting web-sites, sending electronic messages and looking at ready answers on the screen. Immediate recommendation was to think of methods to stop students from being dishonest. The problem is quite serious because there are about 1,000 computer-assisted assessments daily in the UK and this number if growing at a rapid pace. Computers are making things more efficient in many areas but their use in exams introduces a whole new set of risks that were unknown just a couple of years ago. Schools, universities and exam boards have not considered their response to the challenge yet.


1.7.6. Read the following landmarks in the chronological history of the USA and express the ideas using Present Perfect (1), Past Simple (8), Past Progressive (1) or Past Perfect (2) where relevant. You can use prepositions e.g. "by", "since" etc.

1) April 26, 1607. New England grows into a world superpower.
2) Oct. 12. 1492. Christopher Columbus sets foot on the New World.
3) Dec. 4. 1619. Americans celebrate the 1st Thanksgiving.
4) Jul. 4. 1776. The United States declares its independence from Britain.
5) Feb. 21. 1787. The congress adopts the "Dollar".
6) Sep. 3. 1783. The United States largely expands its territory.
7) Sep. 17. 1787. The delegates at Philadelphia approve the constitution.
8) Apr. 20. 1898. The USA declares war on Spain.
9) Oct. 29. 1929. The Neo York Stock Market crashes.
10) Dec. 8. 1941. The USA declares war on Japan.
11) Jul. 12. 1945. American forces take Okinawa.
12) Mar. 29. 1973. The last American soldier leaves Vietnam.


1.8. Past Perfect Progressive Tense

Had + been + doing …

E.g. I had been doing … Has he been doing …? They have not been doing …

1.8.1. Study the list of meanings expressed with the help of Past Perfect and give your own examples.

1. Duration of activity up to some past moment The teams had been playing for half an hour before the light went off on the stadium.
2. Duration of activity up to some past process They had been smokingand the smoke was still whirling up in the room.
3. Reported speech She insisted that the kidnappers had been planningan operation for some time.


Important contrast:

Past Perfect focuses on the result, not the activity. How many letters had you written before the answer came?
Past Perfect Progressive focuses on the activity, not the result. How long had you been writingletters before the answer came?


1.8.2. Match grammar structures with their meaning.

1. The colonists had been travelling for days and their mules needed water, food and rest. A/ Duration to the past moment B/ Duration to the past process C/ Past situation
2. The first settlers in America would build their huts on the banks of the James river. A/ Past ways B/ Past habits C/ Processes in the past
3. Black slaves were working on plantations while white servants were working in the house. A/ Duration to the past process B/ Past scene description C/ Two processes in the past
4. The colonists were beginning to die in the attacks by Indians, of diseases, and of starvation A/ Past temporary activity B/ Past changing situation C/ Process in the past
5. The settlers had not eaten since morning and were starving. A/ Cause and consequence B/ Priority in the past C/ Unrealised hope
6. Somebody had warned colonists that British soldiers wanted to seize their weapons and ammunition. A/ Urgent action B./ Priority in the past C/ Completion before past
7. Amerindians had been camping there and the fire was still burning in the middle. A/ Duration to past process B/ Past temporary activity C/ Cause and consequence
8. Somebody warned Amerindians that white troops had been planning to attack them. A/ Reported speech B/ Unrealised hope C/ Priority in the past
9. By the 19th century the Cherokees had changed from a stone age to a civilised community. A/ Completion before past B/ Duration to past moment C/ Accomplishment by the past
10. Long before the removal of Indians the federal government had organised the land for settlement. A/ Priority in the past B/ Completion before past C/ Duration to the past process


1.8.3. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate choice. Explain the difference.

1. I … home and did not want to go out.

2. First the doctor … his hands and then turned to me.

3. Students … at the exam before the school put monitors.

4. Hemingway … self-confidence for years before his tragic end.

5. By the time I opened the bathroom, the bath …

6. Joe was about to leave when he … his wallet.

7. I … up when the alarm clock rang.

8. The children … the symphony many times before.

9. The floor was wet and I understood that the water … through the roof.

10. We … the car for a month and then discovered it was stolen.

11. When the child opened the eyes, the parents …

12. When he told the joke, everybody …


1. A/ had come B/ was coming C/ came D/ had been coming

2. A/ washed B/ had washed C/ was washing D/ had been washing

3. A/ had been cheating B/ were cheating C/ cheated D/ had been failing

4. A/ lost B/ was losing C/ was loosing D/ had been losing

5. A/ overflowed B/ had overflowed C/ had overflown D/ overflew

6. A/ remembered B/ had remembered C/ forgot D/ had forgotten

7. A/ got B/ had got C/ had been getting D/ had been waking

8. A/ had been hearing B/ were hearing C/ had listened D/ heard

9. A/ was leaking B/ had been leaking C/ leaked D/ had leaked

10. A/ owned B/ had been owning C/ had owned D/ were owning

11. A/ left B/ had left C/ had been leaving D/ were left

12. A/ were laughing B/ had laughed C/ laughed D/ had been laughing


1.8.4. Fill the gaps in the text below with verbs. Use the words given by changing the form if necessary.

Once in America immigrants … together a guitar, singer, simple music, sentimental words, and … country music. They … their folk-songs for years before this music … American. The history of country music is hundreds of years old. It is older than America itself. It … with the immigrants from Scotland and Ireland who … their traditional songs and instruments to the New World. They … those songs on many occasions both fortunate and not. These settlers were … the songs and ballads of their homelands. Eventually, however, the lyrics …. New instruments started to be used too. They were stringed instruments such as fiddles, guitars, and banjos. As the settlers … to the south and west, the music was going with them. It … slightly and gave birth to what … known as country music. This was the real folk music of rural America. Today, country music can be heard throughout the land and … many styles like jazz, rock and roll, even Mexican and Hawaiian music. Times …. Country music has not been the same either. If anything, it … a truly American sound. Put Get Sing Become Begin Bring Sing Sing Change Spread Change Become Incorporate Change Remain


1.8.5. GRAMMAR-GLOSS. Read the text only once, then mask it and write a free version of what you have read. Focus on Past Perfect Progressive (you can use other tenses as well).



The English rock music group "The Beatles" formed in the late 1950s and disbanded in 1970. The group had been dominating rock music scene in the 1960s until it eventually disbanded. It happened when the group felt they had exhausted their possibilities world hits. The group burst on the international rock music scene in 1961. By 1963 they had already acquired a world-wide acclaim. By the late 1960s, "Beatlemania" had abated but the group was still occupying the top charts of popularity. From 1963 to 1970 the Beatles released 18 record albums that documented its musical development. The first recordings were remarkable for their rhythm and rich harmony. The middle albums featured some social commentary in their lyrics. The late period showed electronic techniques and drug-inspired images. In the 60s the group was acting and singing in four films, "Let it Be" among them. They supplied voices for the full-length animated cartoon "Yellow submarine" . After they had disbanded, all the Beatles continued to compose and record songs. Two events followed later, tragic and pleasant. A mad fanatic shot to death John Lennon in 1980. The Queen knighted Paul McCartney in 1997.


1.8.6. Choose a prominent public figure and focus on what the did, had been doing and had succeeded to do during the lifetime.



1.9. Future Simple Tense and Futurity Will/shall + V; V; V+ing; be about to; be going to.

E.g. I will/shall do … Will he do …? You will not do … He does … They are doing … She is going to do … We are about to do …


1.9.1. Study the list of meanings expressed with the help of Future Simple and give your own examples.

1. Guesses and speculations I don/t think the climate will changein the UK.
2. Prediction The guy will make a world champion.
3. Decision I will send for the doctor.
4. Regular ways Do not call in. Vanessa will be out.
5. Present habits He will come back and wigglethe tail.
6. Agreement or offer The bank will giveyou a loan.
7. Promise or threat My son will certainly apologize.
8. Request Will you hand me the ticket, please?
9. Permanent refusal The child willnotlisten to his parents.
10. Asking for opinion Where shall we go without our passports?
11. Invitation Won't you come in and sit down?
12. Offer Shall we gotogether?
13. Formal plans The President will enter and you will rise.


1.9.1-a. Study the ways of expressing futurity and give your own examples.

1. Future arrangement We are checking out at 9 a.m.
2. Surprising news Imagine, Imogene is riding an elephant. I can't wait to see it.
3. Schedules/timetables The lecture starts at 2 p.m.
4. Intentions and aspirations I am going to winthe championship.
5. Prediction from evidence It isgoing torain. Take an umbrella.
6. Near future intention I can see that he is about to say "yes".
7. Near future prediction The fenceis about to fall.Step aside!
8. With temporal pronouns The moment the Queen arrives, start the salute (as soon as, till, by the time, as soon as)
9. Future in the past The minister said inflation would go down, but it went up. The minister said inflation will/would go up. Let's wait and see.


1.9.2. Match grammar structures with their meaning.

1. There will be more earthquakes in the area, papers say. A/ Prediction B/ Guesses and speculations C/ Prediction from evidence
2. This rope is thin and will break off under such weight. A/ Prediction B/ Guesses and speculations C/ Prediction from evidence
3. We shall climb up a tree and see which way to go. A/ Future arrangements B/ Prediction from evidence C/ Decision
4. He will sit on the veranda with his eyes closed and the newspaper on the floor. A/ Regular ways B/ Present habits C/ Prediction
5. Sorry, the boss will not be in the office during lunch time. A/ Regular ways B/ Prediction C/ Present habits
6. Yes, you will be allowed on parole but you will be put under house arrest. A/ Agreement or offer B/ Decision C/ Formal plan
7. Never again will we make such mistakes again. A/ Permanent refusal B/ Promise or threat C/ Decision
8. The customs officer will not let me go through however hard I tried. A/ Regular ways B/ Formal plan C/ Permanent refusal
9. Who will you now ring up? A/ Asking for opinion B/ Request C/ Invitation
10. Won't you join us and watch the film? A/ Invitation B/ Request C/ Formal plans
11. You will go to the rail station and book the ticket yourself. A/ Request B/ Formal plans C/ Regular ways
12. A space rocket is flying to Mars to explore possible life on the planet. A/ Future arrangements. B/ Surprising news C/ Intentions and aspirations
13. The enemies are about to surrender and to give the citadel up. A/ Surprising news B/ Near future prediction C/ Near future intention
14. Look, the girl is going to collapse. Let's take her out to fresh air. A/ Intentions and aspirations B/ Prediction from evidence C/ Near future intention
15. I am having lunch with Prime Minister at his residence. A/ Future arrangements B/ Surprising news C/ Regular ways


1.9.3. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate choice. Explain the difference.

2. Because of global warming glaciers … melt.

3. With such promotion the book … a best-seller.

4. I … Russian salad. They have not tasted it.

5. Somebody's coming. That … Louisa.

6. He … very strong coffee.

7. We will … your debt.

8. You … get it hot!

9. Anybody can enter the garden but my dog … leave it.

10. I … early tomorrow.

11. The snake always gives a warning that it … attack.


1. A/ will melt B/ are about to C/ are going to D/ won't

2. A/ is going to be B/ will be C/ is about to be D/ is

3. A/ am cooking B/ am about to cook C/ will cook D/ cook

4. A/ is going to be B/ will be C/ is being D/ were

5. A/ is drinking B/ is going to drink C/ will drink D/ drink

6. A/ write down B/ overwrite C/ re-write D/ write off

7. A/ will B/ are going to C/ are about to D/ 0

8. A/ will B/ is not going to let C/ will not let D/ will let

9. A/ am rising B/ am about to rise C/ rise D/ rose

10. A/ will B/ is about to C/ is going to D/ is


1.9.4. Fill the gaps in the text below with verbs. Use the words given, by changing the form if necessary

The choices of this generation … crucial for our descendants. Since the report made thirty years ago there … some real improvements in ecology. However, the overall trend is adverse, especially in poor countries. The climate and living conditions on the planet … and people will see it in 30 years from now. On the one hand there … improvements in river and air quality. Due to international effort, the ozone layer … by mid-century. On the other hand there … a steady environmental decline especially in much of the developing world. People … more vulnerable to natural hazards like cyclones, floods and droughts. The gap between environmental degradation and social response …. The task is to assess urgently where we were, where we have arrived, and were we … on. A newspaper reported recently that a lot … for the better. Germans … demand "blue sky over the Ruhr". The sky is blue now and it means that there … real action. Making the wrong decisions today, within 30 year we … on an impoverished planet with sever water stress. More than 70% of the Earth's land surface … marked by the impact of cities, roads, mining and other human activities. If people … "Market First" strategy, then the situation will be even worse than scientists predict. If people prefer to live in a safer world, the governments … "Policy First" strategy. All of us … concrete actions, clear timetables and iron will. Be Be Change Be Recover Be Become Wide Move Change Use Be Live Be Choice Adoption Need


1.9.5. GRAMMAR-GLOSS. Read the text only once and write a free version of what you have read. Focus on expressing futurity (you can use other tenses)


A famous psychologist says that he has recently discovered the answer to the question why some people get all the luck while others never get what they deserve. Ten years ago he set out to examine luck. He wanted to know why some people are always in the right place at the right time while others consistently experience ill fortune. He did a research among volunteers and can now reliably predict who will be lucky in the future. One of his predictions is that lucky people will constantly encounter good opportunities whereas unlucky people will not. The reason is that lucky people will be able to spot such opportunities. The psychologist carried out a simple experiment. He gave both lucky and unlucky people a newspaper and asked them to count the number of photographs in it. He has secretly placed a large message across the newspaper "Tell the experimenter if you have seen this". His assumption was that lucky people would notice it while the unlucky people would miss it. He told the participants to look again and again but the unlucky people would not notice the message and would continue counting the photographs. The psychologist says that unlucky people are tense and will not notice the unexpected. They will go to parties trying to find a perfect partner and will miss their opportunity to make good friends. They will look through newspapers determined to find certain types of job advertisements and will miss other types of jobs. Lucky people are more relaxed and open and therefore they will be able to see what is there rather than just what they are looking for. Lucky people generate good fortune via four principles: they notice opportunities, listen to their gut intuition, create positive expectations, and persevere to transform bad luck into good. Those people who follow these principles are 80% happier and luckier than others.


1.9.6. Read the description of palmistry techniques and, looking at the picture, predict the character of your peers in the group.

The life line originates above the thumb and curves downwards. The life line basically represents the quality of life in terms of physical well being, NOT the length of life. The strong, deeply etched line reveals a strong nervous system and physical constitution, stamina, vitality, good health and immunity, with the ability to shake off illnesses easily.
The head line starts between the thumb and the index finger, stretching towards the little finger. It represents the mental constitution. The energy running through this line reveals the way a person thinks. A long, clear, deeply etched line indicates a person who can think clearly, with excellent reasoning powers.
The heart line crosses the palm from below the little finger. A short straight life line reveals a cold and unemotional nature with little ability to express love. Mental considerations take over feelings. The line reaching below the middle and index finger reveals a person who has strong emotional feelings with plenty of warmth and caring to give. A very long line going across the whole palm means that a person throws himself to whatever seems important.
Fate line runs from the base of the palm towards the middle finger. A strong fate line reveals a determination to succeed in finding stability, well-being and security. Do we know what we want of our life? What is important to us? Perhaps, we have no idea which directions are lives are heading. A well developed fate line implies that the map of life already existed at or even before birth.
Apollo line is found starting from the palm base to the fourth finger. The Apollo line is traditionally associated with creativity, fulfilment, success, fame and fortune. A well formed line represents a major talent, creativity, contentment, optimism and fulfilment.




1.10. Future Progressive Tense. Will/shall + Be + V+ing.

E.g. I will be doing… Will they be doing …? We will not be doing … ?


1.10.1. Study the list of meanings expressed with the help of Future Progressive and give your own examples.

1. Future process They will be arriving in crowds. So, get ready.
2. Future plans Will the satellite be landingin the Pacific?
3. Temporary future The tourists will be spending a day in each country.
4. Future routine I will be looking through morning papers at breakfast.
5. Polite request Will you be showing me around?
6. Future procedures The waitresses will be serving breakfast.
7. Future arrangements She will be giving only one concert a night.


1.10.2. Match grammar structures with their meaning.

1. The prime minister will be visiting a factory and an exhibition spending an hour on each. A/ Future routines. B/ Future plans C/ Future arrangements
2. The comet will be passing in the immediate vicinity of the Earth. A/ Future process B/ Future procedures C/ Future routines
3. Will they be performing in the open air? A/ Future plans B/ Future routines C/ Future procedures
4. You will be staying in the best hotel in town. A/ Future plans B/ Temporary future C/ Future process
5. You will be sitting for exams every four months. A/ Future routines B/ Future procedures C/ Future arrangements
6. The secretary will be doing all your mail. A/ Future routines B/ Future procedures C/ Future process
7. Will you be having lunch at 12? A/ Polite request B/ Future procedures C/ Future routines
8. I am playing golf tomorrow afternoon. A/ Future arrangement B/ Future routines C/ Future processes
9. The boss will never listen to his colleagues. A/ Prediction B/ Guesses and speculation C/ Permanent refusal
10. You will be enjoying our service while on board. A/ Future procedures B/ Temporary future C/ Future arrangements


1.10.3. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate choice. Explain the difference.

1. He … back and apologise.

2. The TV … broadcast the whole championship live.

3. Yahoo mail … ask you for your ID and password

4. Get out or you … in the neck!

5. The curtain … up and you will begin your show.

6. … we have beer?

7. You … an hour on each examination paper. So, be on time.

8. The rain … in torrents during the winter season.

9. The girl … quietly playing with her dolls.

10. I … for the World Bank that year.


1. A/ will call B/ called back C/ has called back D/ calls

2. A/ have B/ will broadcast C/ had D/ do

3. A/ never B/ always C/ will D/ will never

4. A/ have got B/ had got C/ will be getting D/ will get

5. A/ goes B/ have gone C/ will go D/ go

6. A/ won't B/ shall C/ don't we D/ shan't

7. A/ will be spending B/ are going to spend C/ shall spend D/ spend

8. A/ will be pouring B/ is about to pour C/ shall pour D/ is to pour

9. A/ will sit B/ will be sitting C/ has been sitting D/ sat

9. A/ was working B/ will be working C/ have worked D/ had worked



1.10.4. Fill the gaps in the text below with verbs. Use the words given, by changing the form if necessary

Two Mars rovers … on the Red Planet soon. The first probe … on Sunday and its twin is following later in the week. Their mission is to examine whether there was life on Mars in the past. Both spacecraft are ready for landing and the scientists … the final trajectory. They are now choosing a better landing sites for the space vehicles. Mars is a hard place to do business and this … to be a risky operation. It will not be until the landing moment and the fist signals to Earth than the trip can be called successful. The robots … far away from the landing units and … science data. They will be carrying scientific instruments on them. It is going to be a real robotic laboratory. Today Mars is a cold, dry and miserable place. In contrast, it … different. There are dried up river beds and lake beds, former hot-spring environments. The probes will not … for life on the Red Planet. Rather, they … clues that life did exist there millions of years ago. Landing on Mars is a difficult task and there … a significant number of failures. Scientists hope that this expedition … to be successful. If something unexpected … during the landing, they … to do some last-minute reprogramming. Land Land Correct Go Travel Collect Use Look Seek Be Go Happen Ability


1.10.5. GRAMMAR-GLOSS. Read the text only once, then mask it and write a free version of what you have read. Focus on Future Progressive (you can use other tenses)



Scientists are warning the government that Australia is facing a gloomy future. There will be higher temperatures on the continent and more severe droughts will be ravaging the land. Stronger bush-fires will be raging in the suburbs of major cities. Outbreaks of tropical diseases will be haunting population. These discouraging predictions are made in a new government report on climate change over the next 70 years. The findings are adding to pressure on the government to deal better with ecology problems. If the government fails to tackle ecological issues effectively, the effect is going to be devastating. The country is going to be hotter in the immediate future. Droughts and severe storms have already been attacking inland and coastal areas but the worst is yet to come. Average annual temperatures will be rising gradually and the heat is to go up by six degrees in 2070. There is more bad news. Climate change caused by global warming will be putting great pressure on water resources. Water shortages will be felt soon with possible rationing of drinkable water. There will be more outbreaks of tropical diseases such as malaria. In contrast, any reduction in greenhouse gases will help Australia avoid the negative results of changing climate. Australia is going to cut damaging emissions from industries but a lot more needs to be done.


1.10.6. Look at the programme for tourists and explain to them what they will be doing and seeing during their stay. Use Future Progressive where appropriate.

5.44. Arrival at Heathrow airport. Terminal 4. Transfer to the hotel. 6.30. Checking in at the hotel. 7.30 - 8.00 - Dinner at the hotel restaurant. 9.00 - 10.00 - Breakfast at the hotel restaurant. 10.00 - 12.00 - Guided coach tour of London. 12.00 - 13.00 - Lunch at an English pub. 13.00 - 15.00 - Tour of London and Royal Jewels. 15.00 - 17.00 - Walking tour of the City of London. 19.00 - 20.00 - Dinner at the hotel restaurant. 20.00 - 23.00 - Students' disco.



1.11a. Future Perfect Tense. Will/shall + have + done.

E.g. I will have done it by tomorrow. Will they have done it by tomorrow? She will not have done it by tomorrow.

1.11.b. Future Perfect Progressive. Will/shall + have + been + Ving.

E.g. I will have been doing it for 24 hours by tomorrow morning. Will they have been doing it for 24 hours by tomorrow morning? She will not have been doing it for 24 hours by tomorrow morning.


1.11.1. Study the list of meanings expressed with the help of Future Perfect and Future Perfect Progressive. Give your own examples.

1. Completed future act I won’t have receivedthe fax by 10.
2. Completed future process He will have been working here for twenty years by 1 September.


1.11.2. Match grammar structures with their meaning.

1. I will have completed my teaching load by the end of the academic year. A/ Completed future act B/ Completed future process C/ Prediction
2. The company will pay you on approving the results of your work A/ Completed future act B/ Agreement or offer C/ Completed future process
3. Tomorrow the patient will have taken the tenth injection. A/ Completed future process B/ Completed future act C/ Guesses and speculations
4. This shop will not accept cheques or credit cards. A/ Guesses and speculations B/ Completed future act C/ Permanent refusal
5. The composer will have been working on the symphony for a year next month. A/ Completed future act B/ Completed future process C/ Near future prediction
6. Hercules sets out on a journey looking for adventures and heroic deeds. A/ Narratives and summaries B/ Arranged future C/ Absence of experience
7. You will have been doing your lessons for only fifteen minutes if you leave now! A/ Temporary duration B/ Completed future process C/ Completed future act
8. The presidents will have signed the treaty before lunch. A/ Accomplishment B/ Completed future act C/ Obvious result
9. I will have been playing rugby for twenty seasons next year! A/ Long-term process B/ Accomplishment C/ Completed future process
10. By tomorrow night you will have visited all the famous sites of London. A/ Completed future process B/ Prediction C/ Completed future act


1.11.3. Fill in the gaps with the appropriate choice. Explain the difference.

1. This … the one-hundredth performance by next Sunday night.

2. I … on a diet for two weeks tomorrow.

3. She … a word for over a year.

4. The dog … for over a year and finally found his master.

5. Without practical experience you … understand anything.

6. I … anything to eat all day and can't wait for a warm meal.

7. The detective understood that it … too late.

8. We … anywhere this summer.

9. The suspect … in prison six months without a fair trail by tomorrow.

10. Jogging every night … a habit with Daniel only after a month.


1. A/ will be B/ will have been C/ is going to be D/ is

2. A/ am going B/ will have been going C/ will have gone D/ will go

3. A/ has written B/ has not been writing C/ has not written D/ wrote

4. A/ had been travelling B/ had travelled C/ was travelling D/ travelled

5. A/ will not have B/ won't C/ will D/ 0

6. A/ won't have had B/ haven't had C/ don't have D/ have

7. A/ was B/ had been C/ was being D/ has been

8. A/ aren't going B/ will be going C/ will have gone D/ will go

9. A/ will have been spending B/will have spent C/ will spend D/spends

10. A/ is becoming B/ becomes C/ will have become D/ had become


1.11.4. Fill the gaps in the text below with verbs. Use the words given, by changing the form if necessary

There is a famous legend told by Amerindians. It is about the "rainbow warriors", those young people who … our beautiful nature to die. This legend has long been fascinating people and they … what the message of this legend can be. The story goes that people …cruel in their treatment of nature and they will not go unpunished. Sometime in the future the animals …. People will no longer … the wolf, or the bear, or the eagles. The giant trees … too. The beautiful rainbow in the sky will also … away and the people will not be seeing the rainbow anymore. All the nature … before the people understand what wrong they … to the live world. Then children of these people will come, and then the children of these children. Many generations … before the "rainbow warriors" arrive. They will be brave young people determined to bring the rainbow back in the sky and challenging those who … the environment. After they … their enemies, they will bring back the giant trees, and the animals, and the beautiful rainbow. They … hard before everybody sees the results of their efforts. The birds … again in the sky, and the flowers … in the gardens filling the air with fragrance, and the animals … peacefully in the fields. Allow Guess Be Disappear See Death Fade Perish Do Pass Kill Defeat Work Sing Blossom Graze


1.11.5. GRAMMAR-GLOSS. Read the text only once and write a free version of what you have read. Focus on Future Perfect (you can use other tenses)



A high-flown balloon flying over Antarctica has answered one of cosmology's greatest questions proving that the Universe is "flat". Flat Universe means that all the usual rules of geometry are true in outer space and light travels there in straight lines. The scientists were using a very sensitive telescope suspended on a balloon over the Antarctica. Since Albert Einstein proposed that the Universe was "curved", the debate about the shape of the Universe has been open. Until the finding in the Antarctica experiment, cosmologists had not been fully convinced and had been arguing that the Universe was either flat or curved. Another discovery is that the Universe will have been expanding for millions of years until it eventually stops doing so. It looks as if scientists are about to be re-writing the books on the history of the Universe, although some are being either critical or sceptical. Researchers have been testing different models of how the Universe began its existence and how it is going to continue. They have now received some very convincing information that is about to stop the argument. Complete data will have taken more time to process before the researchers have finished all their calculations. What seems doubtless today is that our Universe is perfectly flat and will remain so.



Write what will have been achieved in space programmes by the year 2101. Focus on Future Perfect and Future Perfect Progressive where appropriate.




2.1. All tenses in the passive voice. Be(in the tense required) + Past Participle(third form of the verb).

E.g. The job was done. The letter has not been written. Will the task be fulfilled?


Irregular verbs reminder
Break … …
… Blew …
… … Crept
… Cost …
Dream … …
… … Dwelt
… Ate …
Flee … …
… … Flung
Forecast … …
… Ground …
… … Hung
… Lent …
Quit … …
… Rid …
… … Sought
… Sewed …
Show … …
… Sped …
Spit … …
… Strode …
… Swelled …
… Trod …
… … Won
… Wound …


2.1.1 Study the list of meanings expressed with the help of "can". Give your own examples.

Date: 2015-12-11; view: 906

Meaning Examples
1 Acting upon object The air was compressed to a high degree.
2 Statement Many accidents are caused by carelessness.
3 Fact The money was stolenfrom the bank.
4 News It is reported that …
5 Opinions It iswidelybelievedthat …
6 Result The room wasfreshlypainted.
7 Deed This temple was createdby ancient Aztecs.
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Present Perfect Progressive Tense. | MUST, HAVE TO, SHOULD, OUGHT TO, NEED TO, BE TO.
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